Join our Police Use of Force group on Zotero

Alang, S., McAlpine, D., McCreedy, E., & Hardeman, R. (2017). Police Brutality and Black Health: Setting the Agenda for Public Health Scholars. American Journal of Public Health, 107(5), 662–665. Cite
Bor, J., Venkataramani, A. S., Williams, D. R., & Tsai, A. C. (2018). Police killings and their spillover effects on the mental health of black Americans: a population-based, quasi-experimental study. The Lancet, 0(0). Cite
Boyd, R. (n.d.). Police Violence and Public Health | KQED. KQED Public Media. Retrieved May 12, 2015, from Cite
Burke, R. J., & Mikkelsen, A. (2005). Burnout, job stress and attitudes towards the use of force by Norwegian police officers. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 28(2), 269–278. Cite
California Department of Public Health. (n.d.). California’s Electronic Violent Death Reporting System (CalEVDRS). California Department of Public Health. Retrieved June 12, 2014, from Cite
CDC Violence Prevention|Injury Center. (n.d.). The Public Health Approach to Violence Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved September 12, 2018, from Cite
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). WISQARS Nonfatal Injury Reports. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved December 10, 2014, from Cite
Clair, M. E. (2006). The relationship between critical incidents, hostility and PTSD symptoms in police officers [Drexel University]. Cite
Collins, S. P. K. (2014, December 15). Why People Of Color Don’t Call For An Ambulance. Cite
Cooper, H., & Fullilove, M. (2016). Editorial: Excessive Police Violence as a Public Health Issue. J Urban Health. Cite
Cooper, H., Moore, L., Gruskin, S., & Krieger, N. (2004). Characterizing Perceived Police Violence: Implications for Public Health. American Journal of Public Health, 94(7), 1109–1118. Cite
DeVylder, J. E., Oh, H. Y., Nam, B., Sharpe, T. L., Lehmann, M., & Link, B. G. (2017). Prevalence, demographic variation and psychological correlates of exposure to police victimisation in four US cities. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 26(5), 466–477. Cite
Feldman, J. M., Gruskin, S., Coull, B. A., & Krieger, N. (2019). Police-Related Deaths and Neighborhood Economic and Racial/Ethnic Polarization, United States, 2015-2016. American Journal of Public Health, 109(3), 458–464. Cite
Fields, G. (2013, October 22). Lives of Mentally Ill, Police Collide; Law-enforcement professionals and mental-health advocates believe they are seeing an increase in fatal encounters between police and the mentally ill. Wall Street Journal (Online), n/a. Cite
Gilbert, K. L., & Ray, R. (2016). Why Police Kill Black Males with Impunity: Applying Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to Address the Determinants of Policing Behaviors and “Justifiable” Homicides in the USA. Journal of Urban Health, 93(1), 122–140. Cite
Gilbert, K. L., Ray, R., Byrd, W. C., Richardson, J., & Johnson, O. (2018). The Matter of Lives Underneath Black Male Skin: Using Theory and Media to Explore the Case of “Justifiable Homicides” for Black Males. In Inequality, Crime, and Health Among African American Males (Vol. 20, pp. 171–183). Emerald Publishing Limited. Cite
Gomez, M. B. (2016). Policing, Community Fragmentation, and Public Health: Observations from Baltimore. Journal of Urban Health, 93(1), 154–167. Cite
Gray, R. M., Green, R., Bryant, J., Rance, J., & MacLean, S. (2017). How ‘Vulnerable’ young people describe their interactions with police: building positive pathways to drug diversion and treatment in Sydney and Melbourne, Australia. Police Practice and Research, 0(0), 1–16. Cite
Herd, D. (2020). Cycles of Threat: Graham v. Connor, Police Violence, and African American Health Inequities. Boston University Law Review, 100(3). Cite
Hirschfield, P. J. (2015). Lethal Policing: Making Sense of American Exceptionalism. Sociological Forum, 30(4), 1109–1117. Cite
Hutson, H. R., Anglin, D., Rice, P., Kyriacou, D. N., Guirguis, M., & Strote, J. (2009). Excessive use of force by police: a survey of academic emergency physicians. Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ, 26(1), 20–22. Cite
Komarovskaya, I., Maguen, S., McCaslin, S. E., Metzler, T. J., Madan, A., Brown, A. D., Galatzer-Levy, I. R., Henn-Haase, C., & Marmar, C. R. (2011). The impact of killing and injuring others on mental health symptoms among police officers. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45(10), 1332–1336. Cite
Kop, N., Euwema, M., & Schaufeli, W. (1999). Burnout, job stress and violent behaviour among Dutch police officers. Work & Stress, 13(4), 326–340. Cite
Kramer, R., & Remster, B. (2018). Stop, Frisk, and Assault? Racial Disparities in Police Use of Force During Investigatory Stops: Racial Disparities in Police Use of Force. Law & Society Review, 52(4), 960–993. Cite
Krieger, N., Chen, J. T., Waterman, P. D., Kiang, M. V., & Feldman, J. (2015). Police Killings and Police Deaths Are Public Health Data and Can Be Counted. PLoS Med, 12(12), e1001915. Cite
Lee, J. R. S., & Robinson, M. A. (2019). “That’s My Number One Fear in Life. It’s the Police”: Examining Young Black Men’s Exposures to Trauma and Loss Resulting From Police Violence and Police Killings: Journal of Black Psychology. Cite
Lockhart, P. R. (2019, August 14). Why police violence needs to be treated as a public health issue. Vox. Cite
MacDonald, J. M., Kaminski, R. J., & Smith, M. R. (2009). The Effect of Less-Lethal Weapons on Injuries in Police Use-of-Force Events. American Journal of Public Health, 99(12), 2268–2274. Cite
Ménard, K. S., & Arter, M. L. (2013). Police officer alcohol use and trauma symptoms: Associations with critical incidents, coping, and social stressors. International Journal of Stress Management, 20(1), 37–56. Cite
Miller, T. R., Lawrence, B. A., Carlson, N. N., Hendrie, D., Randall, S., Rockett, I. R. H., & Spicer, R. S. (2016). Perils of police action: a cautionary tale from US data sets. Injury Prevention, injuryprev–2016–042023. Cite
Mumola, C. J. (2007). Arrest-Related Deaths in the United States, 2003-2005 (Special Report). Bureau of Justice Statistics. Cite
Nelson, A. (2016). The Longue Durée of Black Lives Matter. American Journal of Public Health, 106(10), 1734–1737. Cite
Obasogie, O. K., & Newman, Z. (2017). Police Violence, Use of Force Policies, and Public Health. American Journal of Law & Medicine, 43(2–3), 279–295. Cite
Oh, H., DeVylder, J., & Hunt, G. (2017). Effect of Police Training and Accountability on the Mental Health of African American Adults. American Journal of Public Health, 107(10), 1588–1590. Cite
Ortellado, D., & Foundation, S. (2014, September 5). CDC: Hospital data shows racial disparity in injuries caused by police. Philly.Com. Cite
RIchardson, Jr., J. B., Vil, C. S., & Cooper, C. (2015). Who Shot Ya? How Emergency Departments Can Collect Reliable Police Shooting Data. Journal of Urban Health, 1–24. Cite
Ritchie, A. J. (2017). Invisible no more: Police violence against Black women and women of color. Beacon Press. Cite
Sewell, A. A. (2017). The Illness Associations of Police Violence: Differential Relationships by Ethnoracial Composition. Sociological Forum, 32, 975–997. Cite
Stavely, Z. (n.d.). Violence Causes Ripple Effects for Thousands of Oakland Students. KQED News. Retrieved May 12, 2015, from Cite
Wilson, I., Antin, T. M., & Hunt, G. (2020). Some Are Good, Some Are Bad: Perceptions of the Police from Black and Latina Women Living in the San Francisco Bay Area. Women & Criminal Justice, 1–16. Cite
Wines, M. (2014, August 30). Race and Police Shootings: Are Blacks Targeted More? The New York Times. Cite
Zakrison, T. L., Hamel, P. A., & Hwang, S. W. (2004). Homeless people’s trust and interactions with police and paramedics. Journal of Urban Health, 81(4), 596–605. Cite
ICD-10 codes and documentation need to get more specific | ICD10 Watch. (n.d.). Retrieved March 16, 2017, from Cite
2018 APHA End Police Violence Statement. (n.d.). #endpoliceviolence. Retrieved September 12, 2018, from Cite