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Alang, S., McAlpine, D., McCreedy, E., & Hardeman, R. (2017). Police Brutality and Black Health: Setting the Agenda for Public Health Scholars. American Journal of Public Health, 107(5), 662–665. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2017.303691 Cite
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Collins, S. P. K. (2014, December 15). Why People Of Color Don’t Call For An Ambulance. Retrieved December 17, 2014, from http://thinkprogress.org/health/2014/12/15/3603690/distrust-police-emergency-care/ Cite
Cooper, H., & Fullilove, M. (2016). Editorial: Excessive Police Violence as a Public Health Issue. J Urban Health. Cite
Cooper, H., Moore, L., Gruskin, S., & Krieger, N. (2004). Characterizing Perceived Police Violence: Implications for Public Health. American Journal of Public Health, 94(7), 1109–1118. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448406/ Cite
DeVylder, J. E., Oh, H. Y., Nam, B., Sharpe, T. L., Lehmann, M., & Link, B. G. (2017). Prevalence, demographic variation and psychological correlates of exposure to police victimisation in four US cities. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 26(5), 466–477. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2045796016000810 Cite
Feldman, J. M., Gruskin, S., Coull, B. A., & Krieger, N. (2019). Police-Related Deaths and Neighborhood Economic and Racial/Ethnic Polarization, United States, 2015-2016. American Journal of Public Health, 109(3), 458–464. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2018.304851 Cite
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Gilbert, K. L., & Ray, R. (2016). Why Police Kill Black Males with Impunity: Applying Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to Address the Determinants of Policing Behaviors and “Justifiable” Homicides in the USA. Journal of Urban Health, 93(1), 122–140. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-015-0005-x Cite
Gilbert, K. L., Ray, R., Byrd, W. C., Richardson, J., & Johnson, O. (2018). The Matter of Lives Underneath Black Male Skin: Using Theory and Media to Explore the Case of “Justifiable Homicides” for Black Males. In Inequality, Crime, and Health Among African American Males (Vol. 20, pp. 171–183). Emerald Publishing Limited. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0195-744920180000020011 Cite
Gomez, M. B. (2016). Policing, Community Fragmentation, and Public Health: Observations from Baltimore. Journal of Urban Health, 93(1), 154–167. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-015-0022-9 Cite
Gray, R. M., Green, R., Bryant, J., Rance, J., & MacLean, S. (2017). How ‘Vulnerable’ young people describe their interactions with police: building positive pathways to drug diversion and treatment in Sydney and Melbourne, Australia. Police Practice and Research, 0(0), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/15614263.2017.1347787 Cite
Herd, D. (2020). Cycles of Threat: Graham v. Connor, Police Violence, and African American Health Inequities. Boston University Law Review, 100(3). Cite
Hirschfield, P. J. (2015). Lethal Policing: Making Sense of American Exceptionalism. Sociological Forum, 30(4), 1109–1117. https://doi.org/10.1111/socf.12200 Cite
Hutson, H. R., Anglin, D., Rice, P., Kyriacou, D. N., Guirguis, M., & Strote, J. (2009). Excessive use of force by police: a survey of academic emergency physicians. Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ, 26(1), 20–22. https://doi.org/10.1136/emj.2007.053348 Cite
Komarovskaya, I., Maguen, S., McCaslin, S. E., Metzler, T. J., Madan, A., Brown, A. D., … Marmar, C. R. (2011). The impact of killing and injuring others on mental health symptoms among police officers. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45(10), 1332–1336. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2011.05.004 Cite
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Kramer, R., & Remster, B. (2018). Stop, Frisk, and Assault? Racial Disparities in Police Use of Force During Investigatory Stops: Racial Disparities in Police Use of Force. Law & Society Review, 52(4), 960–993. https://doi.org/10.1111/lasr.12366 Cite
Krieger, N., Chen, J. T., Waterman, P. D., Kiang, M. V., & Feldman, J. (2015). Police Killings and Police Deaths Are Public Health Data and Can Be Counted. PLoS Med, 12(12), e1001915. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001915 Cite
Lee, J. R. S., & Robinson, M. A. (2019). “That’s My Number One Fear in Life. It’s the Police”: Examining Young Black Men’s Exposures to Trauma and Loss Resulting From Police Violence and Police Killings: Journal of Black Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095798419865152 Cite
Lockhart, P. R. (2019, August 14). Why police violence needs to be treated as a public health issue. Retrieved August 31, 2019, from https://www.vox.com/identities/2019/8/14/20803872/police-violence-mortality-public-health-black-men-rutgers Cite
MacDonald, J. M., Kaminski, R. J., & Smith, M. R. (2009). The Effect of Less-Lethal Weapons on Injuries in Police Use-of-Force Events. American Journal of Public Health, 99(12), 2268–2274. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2009.159616 Cite
Ménard, K. S., & Arter, M. L. (2013). Police officer alcohol use and trauma symptoms: Associations with critical incidents, coping, and social stressors. International Journal of Stress Management, 20(1), 37–56. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031434 Cite
Miller, T. R., Lawrence, B. A., Carlson, N. N., Hendrie, D., Randall, S., Rockett, I. R. H., & Spicer, R. S. (2016). Perils of police action: a cautionary tale from US data sets. Injury Prevention, injuryprev-2016-042023. https://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2016-042023 Cite
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Obasogie, O. K., & Newman, Z. (2017). Police Violence, Use of Force Policies, and Public Health. American Journal of Law & Medicine, 43(2–3), 279–295. Cite
Oh, H., DeVylder, J., & Hunt, G. (2017). Effect of Police Training and Accountability on the Mental Health of African American Adults. American Journal of Public Health, 107(10), 1588–1590. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2017.304012 Cite
Ortellado, D., & Foundation, S. (2014, September 5). CDC: Hospital data shows racial disparity in injuries caused by police. Retrieved December 9, 2014, from http://www.philly.com/philly/health/CDC_Hospital_data_shows_racial_disparity_in_injuries_caused_by_police.html Cite
RIchardson, Jr., J. B., Vil, C. S., & Cooper, C. (2015). Who Shot Ya? How Emergency Departments Can Collect Reliable Police Shooting Data. Journal of Urban Health, 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-015-0008-7 Cite
Ritchie, A. J. (2017). Invisible no more: Police violence against Black women and women of color. Beacon Press. Cite
Sewell, A. A. (2017). The Illness Associations of Police Violence: Differential Relationships by Ethnoracial Composition. Sociological Forum, 32, 975–997. https://doi.org/10.1111/socf.12361 Cite
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Wilson, I., Antin, T. M., & Hunt, G. (2020). Some Are Good, Some Are Bad: Perceptions of the Police from Black and Latina Women Living in the San Francisco Bay Area. Women & Criminal Justice, 1–16. Cite
Wines, M. (2014, August 30). Race and Police Shootings: Are Blacks Targeted More? The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/31/sunday-review/race-and-police-shootings-are-blacks-targeted-more.html Cite
Zakrison, T. L., Hamel, P. A., & Hwang, S. W. (2004). Homeless people’s trust and interactions with police and paramedics. Journal of Urban Health, 81(4), 596–605. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/index/L13127JL77R57411.pdf Cite
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