Systematic Approaches to Qualitative Research

Our work integrates qualitative and mixed methods approaches to research. Our focus is primarily qualitative, in part because many issues that challenge the status quo in public health have remained at the margins, and a qualitative approach is well-suited to investigating underexplored topics and alternative perspectives. We take a multiple method approach to qualitative research — integrating innovative techniques and participant activities to understand how lived experience shapes health and well-being.

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Qualitative Research Methods

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Analysis, Synthesis, Ways of Knowing

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Antin, T., Constantine, N., & Hunt, G. (2013). Conflicting discourses in qualitative research: The search for divergent data within cases. Field Methods, 27(3). Cite
Bernard, H. R., & Ryan, G. W. (2010). Analyzing qualitative data: Systematic approaches. Sage. Cite
Booth, A., Carroll, C., Ilott, I., Low, L. L., & Cooper, K. (2013). Desperately seeking dissonance: identifying the disconfirming case in qualitative evidence synthesis. Qualitative Health Research, 23(1), 126–141. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732312466295 Cite
Carter, S. M., Jordens, C. F. C., McGrath, C., & Little, M. (2008). You Have to Make Something of All That Rubbish, Do You? An Empirical Investigation of the Social Process of Qualitative Research. Qualitative Health Research, 18(9), 1264–1276. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732308321753 Cite
Corbin, J. M., & Strauss, A. (1990). Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria. Qualitative Sociology, 13(1), 3–21. Cite
Crabtree, B. F., & Miller, W. L. (1992). A template approach to text analysis:  Developing and using codebooks. In B. F. Crabtree & W. L. Miller (Eds.), Doing Qualitative Research (pp. 93–109). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Cite
Elliott, B. J. (2005). Narrative and New Developments in the Social Sciences. In Using narrative in social research: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Sage Publications Ltd. Cite
Hardcastle, M.-A., Usher, K., & Holmes, C. (2006). Carspecken’s Five-Stage Critical Qualitative Research Method: An Application to Nursing Research. Qualitative Health Research, 16(1), 151–161. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732305283998 Cite
Hsieh, H. F., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 15(9), 1277–1288. Cite
Hymes, D. H., & Gumperz, J. J. (1972). Directions in sociolinguistics: the ethnography of communication. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Cite
Letourneau, N., & Allen, M. (1999). Post-positivistic critical multiplism: a beginning dialogue. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 30(3), 623–630. Cite
Maxwell, J. A. (2004). Using qualitative methods for causal explanation. Field Methods, 16(3), 243–264. Retrieved from http://fmx.sagepub.com/content/16/3/243.short Cite
Millen, D. R. (2000). Rapid ethnography: time deepening strategies for HCI field research. In Proceedings of the 3rd conference on Designing interactive systems: processes, practices, methods, and techniques (pp. 280–286). Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=347763 Cite
Potvin, L., Gendron, S., Bilodeau, A., & Chabot, P. (2005). Integrating Social Theory Into Public Health Practice. American Journal of Public Health, 95(4), 591–595. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2004.048017 Cite
Ragin, C. C., Shulman, D., Weinberg, A., & Gran, B. (2003). Complexity, Generality, and Qualitative Comparative Analysis. Field Methods, 15(4), 323–340. https://doi.org/10.1177/1525822X03257689 Cite
Ryan, G. W., & Bernard, H. R. (2003). Techniques to identify themes. Field Methods, 15, 85–109. Cite
Ryan, G. W., & Bernard, H. R. (2003). Techniques to Identify Themes. Field Methods, 15(1), 85–109. https://doi.org/10.1177/1525822X02239569 Cite
Sallee, M. W., & Harris, F. (2011). Gender performance in qualitative studies of masculinities. Qualitative Research, 11(4), 409–429. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794111404322 Cite
Sandelowski, M. (2000). Focus on research methods. Combining qualitative and quantitative sampling, data collection, and analysis techniques in mixed-method studies. Research in Nursing & Health, 23(3), 246–255. Retrieved from Publisher URL: www.cinahl.com/cgi-bin/refsvc?jid=328&accno=2000066206 Cite
Saville-Troike, M. (2008). The ethnography of communication: An introduction. Wiley-Blackwell. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=dXd6zOtliZsC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=ethnography+of+communication&ots=kWz128_6Fs&sig=0-6gE7x02PyjZl-UFHiwxVtqgDs Cite
Singer, M. (1990). Reinventing medical anthropology: Toward a critical realignment. Social Science & Medicine, 30(2), 179–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(90)90078-7 Cite
Starks, H., & Trinidad, S. B. (2007). Choose Your Method: A Comparison of Phenomenology, Discourse Analysis, and Grounded Theory. Qualitative Health Research, 17(10), 1372–1380. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732307307031 Cite
Weaver, K., & Olson, J. K. (2006). Understanding paradigms used for nursing research. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 53(4), 459–469. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.03740.x Cite
Wolf, M. (1992). A thrice-told tale: Feminism, postmodernism, and ethnographic responsibility. Stanford University Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=_jTHvVUFC8MC&oi=fnd&pg=PA5&dq=thrice+told+tale&ots=zMtmNd9atl&sig=mEgt3Jm7XhDjVlHpOkm3OZYQy84 Cite

Data Collection, Data Management

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Birks, M., Chapman, Y., & Francis, K. (2008). Memoing in qualitative research Probing data and processes. Journal of Research in Nursing, 13(1), 68–75. https://doi.org/10.1177/1744987107081254 Cite
Heaton, J. (2008). Secondary Analysis of Qualitative Data: An Overview. Historical Social Research / Historische Sozialforschung, 33(3 (125)), 33–45. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20762299 Cite
Millen, D. R. (2000). Rapid ethnography: time deepening strategies for HCI field research. In Proceedings of the 3rd conference on Designing interactive systems: processes, practices, methods, and techniques (pp. 280–286). Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=347763 Cite
Poteete, A. R., & Ostrom, E. (2008). Fifteen Years of Empirical Research on Collective Action in Natural Resource Management: Struggling to Build Large-N Databases Based on Qualitative Research. World Development, 36(1), 176–195. https://doi.org/Article Cite
Sandelowski, M. (2000). Focus on research methods. Combining qualitative and quantitative sampling, data collection, and analysis techniques in mixed-method studies. Research in Nursing & Health, 23(3), 246–255. Retrieved from Publisher URL: www.cinahl.com/cgi-bin/refsvc?jid=328&accno=2000066206 Cite

Digital Methods, Virtual Worlds

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Beaulieu, A., & Estalella, A. (2012). Rethinking Research Ethics for Mediated Settings. Information, Communication & Society, 15(1), 23–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2010.535838 Cite
Boellstorff, T., Nardi, B., Pearce, C., Taylor, T. L., & Marcus, G. E. (2012). Ethnography and Virtual Worlds: A Handbook of Method. Princeton University Press. Cite
Burrell, J. (2009). The field site as a network: A strategy for locating ethnographic research. Field Methods, 21(2), 181–199. Retrieved from http://fmx.sagepub.com/content/21/2/181.short Cite
Coleman, E. G. (2010). Ethnographic approaches to digital media. Annual Review of Anthropology, 39, 487–505. Retrieved from http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.anthro.012809.104945 Cite
Hamilton, R. J., & Bowers, B. J. (2006). Internet Recruitment and E-Mail Interviews in Qualitative Studies. Qualitative Health Research, 16(6), 821–835. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732306287599 Cite
Howard, P. N. (2002). Network Ethnography and the Hypermedia Organization: New Media, New Organizations, New Methods. New Media & Society, 4(4), 550–574. https://doi.org/10.1177/146144402321466813 Cite
Hsu, W. (2013, January 25). On Digital Ethnography, magnifying the materiality of culture (3 of 4). Retrieved March 20, 2014, from http://ethnographymatters.net/2013/01/25/on-digital-ethnography-magnifying-the-materiality-of-culture-part-3-of-4/ Cite
Kozinets, R. V. (2009). Netnography: Doing Ethnographic Research Online. SAGE Publications Ltd. Cite
Markham, A., & Buchanan, E. (2012). Ethical decision-making and Internet research. Association of Internet Researchers. Retrieved from http://ethics.aoir.org/index.php?title=Main_Page Cite
Marwick, A. E., & Boyd, D. (2011). I tweet honestly, I tweet passionately: Twitter users, context collapse, and the imagined audience. New Media & Society, 13(1), 114–133. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444810365313 Cite
Murthy, D. (2008). Digital Ethnography An Examination of the Use of New Technologies for Social Research. Sociology, 42(5), 837–855. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038038508094565 Cite
Puschmann, C., Ford, H., Recuero, R., Phillips, W., Sauter, T., Bruns, A., & Eckert, S. (2013). Enacting conflict, controversy, and aggression in online spaces. Selected Papers of Internet Research, 3. Retrieved from http://spir.aoir.org/index.php/spir/article/view/896 Cite
Salmons, J. E. (2014). Qualitative Online Interviews: Strategies, Design, and Skills (Second Edition edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Cite
Spyer, J. (2013, February 21). YouTube “video tags” as an open survey tool. Retrieved March 17, 2014, from http://ethnographymatters.net/2013/02/21/youtube-video-tags-as-an-open-survey-tool/ Cite
Wang, T. (2012, August 2). Writing Live Fieldnotes: Towards a More Open Ethnography. Retrieved April 22, 2014, from http://ethnographymatters.net/2012/08/02/writing-live-fieldnotes-towards-a-more-open-ethnography/ Cite

Ethics

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Beaulieu, A., & Estalella, A. (2012). Rethinking Research Ethics for Mediated Settings. Information, Communication & Society, 15(1), 23–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2010.535838 Cite
Clark, T. (2010). On ‘being researched’: why do people engage with qualitative research? Qualitative Research, 10(4), 399. Cite
Kirk, S. (n.d.). Methodological and ethical issues in conducting qualitative research with children and young people : A literature review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 44(7), 1250–1260. Retrieved from http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18994958 Cite
Lopez, A. M., Bourgois, P., Wenger, L. D., Lorvick, J., Martinez, A. N., & Kral, A. H. (2013). Interdisciplinary mixed methods research with structurally vulnerable populations: Case studies of injection drug users in San Francisco. The International Journal on Drug Policy. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23312109 Cite
Markham, A., & Buchanan, E. (2012). Ethical decision-making and Internet research. Association of Internet Researchers. Retrieved from http://ethics.aoir.org/index.php?title=Main_Page Cite
Marwick, A. E., & Boyd, D. (2011). I tweet honestly, I tweet passionately: Twitter users, context collapse, and the imagined audience. New Media & Society, 13(1), 114–133. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444810365313 Cite
Thorne, B. (1980). “You still takin’’ notes?" Fieldwork and problems of informed consent.” Social Problems, 284–297. Cite
van den Hoonaard, W. C. (2003). Is anonymity an artifact in ethnographic research? Journal of Academic Ethics, 1(2), 141–151. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/B%3AJAET.0000006919.58804.4c Cite
Wolf, M. (1992). A thrice-told tale: Feminism, postmodernism, and ethnographic responsibility. Stanford University Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=_jTHvVUFC8MC&oi=fnd&pg=PA5&dq=thrice+told+tale&ots=zMtmNd9atl&sig=mEgt3Jm7XhDjVlHpOkm3OZYQy84 Cite

Focus Groups

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MacDougall, C., & Fudge, E. (2001). Planning and recruiting the sample for focus groups and in-depth interviews. Qualitative Health Research, 11, 117–126. Cite

Data Collection, Data Management

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Birks, M., Chapman, Y., & Francis, K. (2008). Memoing in qualitative research Probing data and processes. Journal of Research in Nursing, 13(1), 68–75. https://doi.org/10.1177/1744987107081254 Cite
Heaton, J. (2008). Secondary Analysis of Qualitative Data: An Overview. Historical Social Research / Historische Sozialforschung, 33(3 (125)), 33–45. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20762299 Cite
Millen, D. R. (2000). Rapid ethnography: time deepening strategies for HCI field research. In Proceedings of the 3rd conference on Designing interactive systems: processes, practices, methods, and techniques (pp. 280–286). Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=347763 Cite
Poteete, A. R., & Ostrom, E. (2008). Fifteen Years of Empirical Research on Collective Action in Natural Resource Management: Struggling to Build Large-N Databases Based on Qualitative Research. World Development, 36(1), 176–195. https://doi.org/Article Cite
Sandelowski, M. (2000). Focus on research methods. Combining qualitative and quantitative sampling, data collection, and analysis techniques in mixed-method studies. Research in Nursing & Health, 23(3), 246–255. Retrieved from Publisher URL: www.cinahl.com/cgi-bin/refsvc?jid=328&accno=2000066206 Cite

Handbooks

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Bernard, H. R. (1998). Handbook of methods in cultural anthropology. Altamira Press Walnut Creek, CA. Retrieved from https://syllabus.byu.edu/uploads/p/pqQ5zRd_zOHe.pdf Cite
Bernard, H. R., & Bernard, H. R. (2012). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Sage. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7sZHuhyzBNQC&oi=fnd&pg=PR1&dq=research+methods+in+anthropology+qualitative+and+quantitative&ots=ebUHW4jvQx&sig=HIFOcuu7xckcv4jgrXlav37kmd0 Cite
Boellstorff, T., Nardi, B., Pearce, C., Taylor, T. L., & Marcus, G. E. (2012). Ethnography and Virtual Worlds: A Handbook of Method. Princeton University Press. Cite
Crabtree, B. F., & Miller, W. L. (1999). Doing qualitative research. SAGE. Cite
Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2005). The Sage handbook of qualitative research. Sage. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=X85J8ipMpZEC&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=sage+handbook+qualitative+research&ots=D1SaK6N-jm&sig=9jd3EJd8WUz1DDK76XaFwcUR2a0 Cite
LeCompte, M. D., & Schensul, J. J. (1999). Ethnographer’s toolkit. AltaMira Press. Cite
Lofland, J., & Lofland, J. (2006). Analyzing social settings: a guide to qualitative observation and analysis. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. Cite
Maxwell, J. A. (2012). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach (Vol. 41). Sage publications. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=xAHCOmtAZd0C&oi=fnd&pg=PP14&dq=qualitative+research+design+interactive&ots=Y-JRqnsdf-&sig=pBHOql-2qkgl51xY1pxp1t3LpaU Cite
Strauss, A. (1987). Qualitative Analysis for Social Scientists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cite

Interviews

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Mixed Methods

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Anderson, K., Nafus, D., Rattenbury, T., & Aipperspach, R. (2009). Numbers Have Qualities Too: Experiences with Ethno-Mining. In Ethnographic Praxis in Industry Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2009, pp. 123–140). Cite
Annechino, R., Antin, T. M., & Lee, J. P. (2010). Bridging the qualitative-quantitative software divide. Field Methods, 22(2), 115–124. Retrieved from http://fmx.sagepub.com/content/22/2/115.short Cite
Bernard, H. R. (1996). Qualitative Data, Quantitative Analysis. The Cultural Anthropology Methods Journal, 8(1). Retrieved from http://www.analytictech.com/borgatti/qualqua.htm Cite
Buchanan, D. R. (1992). An uneasy alliance: Combining qualitative and quantitative research methods. Health Education Quarterly, 19(1), 117–135. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=1992-39512-001&site=ehost-live Cite
Chatterjee, A., & Gelbman, S. M. (2004). Triangulation Reconsidered: The Hazards of Multi-Method Research. In Conference Papers -- American Political Science Association (pp. 1–19). American Political Science Association. https://doi.org/Conference Paper Cite
Chen, H. T. (2006). A theory-driven evaluation perspective on mixed methods research. Research in the Schools, 13(1), 75–83. Retrieved from hchen@uab.edu Cite
Elliott, B. J. (2005). Narrative and New Developments in the Social Sciences. In Using narrative in social research: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Sage Publications Ltd. Cite
Fine, G. A., & Elsbach, K. D. (2000). Ethnography and Experiment in Social Psychological Theory Building: Tactics for Integrating Qualitative Field Data with Quantitative Lab Data. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 36(1), 51–76. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=711633&site=ehost-live Cite
Handwerker, W. P. (2006). The Evolution of Ethnographic Research Methods: Curiosities and Contradictions in the Qualitative Research Literature. Reviews in Anthropology, 35(1), 105–118. https://doi.org/Article Cite
Jung, J.-K. (2007). Computer-aided qualitative GIS (CAQ-GIS) for critical researchers: An integration of quantitative and qualitative research in the geography of communities. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 68(5), 2111. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2007-99211-499&site=ehost-live Cite
Lopez, A. M., Bourgois, P., Wenger, L. D., Lorvick, J., Martinez, A. N., & Kral, A. H. (2013). Interdisciplinary mixed methods research with structurally vulnerable populations: Case studies of injection drug users in San Francisco. The International Journal on Drug Policy. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23312109 Cite
Matthews, S. A., Detwiler, J. E., & Burton, L. M. (2005). Geo-ethnography: Coupling Geographic Information Analysis Techniques with Ethnographic Methods in Urban Research. Cartographica, 40(4), 75–90. https://doi.org/Article Cite
Sandelowski, M. (2000). Focus on research methods. Combining qualitative and quantitative sampling, data collection, and analysis techniques in mixed-method studies. Research in Nursing & Health, 23(3), 246–255. Retrieved from Publisher URL: www.cinahl.com/cgi-bin/refsvc?jid=328&accno=2000066206 Cite
Small, M. L. (2011). How to conduct a mixed methods study: Recent trends in a rapidly growing literature. Sociology, 37(1), 57. Retrieved from http://www.annualreviews.org/eprint/PWj9VI4phCs3gQH6RtcW/full/10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.102657 Cite
Tashakkori, A., & Teddlie, C. (1998). Mixed Methodology: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Sage Publications Inc. Cite
Voils, C. I. (2008). Making Sense of Qualitative and Quantitative Findings in Mixed Research Synthesis Studies. Field Methods, 20(1), 3–25. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=13452067&site=ehost-live Cite

Multi Methods

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Anderson, K., Nafus, D., Rattenbury, T., & Aipperspach, R. (2009). Numbers Have Qualities Too: Experiences with Ethno-Mining. In Ethnographic Praxis in Industry Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2009, pp. 123–140). Cite
Bagnoli, A. (2009). Beyond the standard interview: the use of graphic elicitation and arts-based methods. Qualitative Research, 9(5), 547–570. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794109343625 Cite
Barter, C., & Renold, E. (2000). “I wanna tell you a story”: Exploring the application of vignettes in qualitative research with children and young people. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 3(4), 307–323. https://doi.org/10.1080/13645570050178594 Cite
Chatterjee, A., & Gelbman, S. M. (2004). Triangulation Reconsidered: The Hazards of Multi-Method Research. In Conference Papers -- American Political Science Association (pp. 1–19). American Political Science Association. https://doi.org/Conference Paper Cite
Collier, J., & Collier, M. (1986). Visual anthropology: photography as a research method. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. Cite
Handwerker, W. P. (2006). The Evolution of Ethnographic Research Methods: Curiosities and Contradictions in the Qualitative Research Literature. Reviews in Anthropology, 35(1), 105–118. https://doi.org/Article Cite
Matthews, S. A., Detwiler, J. E., & Burton, L. M. (2005). Geo-ethnography: Coupling Geographic Information Analysis Techniques with Ethnographic Methods in Urban Research. Cartographica, 40(4), 75–90. https://doi.org/Article Cite

Participation, Observation

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Atkinson, P., & Hammersley, M. (1994). Ethnography and participant observation. In N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research (pp. 248–261). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Cite
Bergold, J., & Thomas, S. (2012). Participatory Research Methods: A Methodological Approach in Motion. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 13(1). Retrieved from http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/1801 Cite
Garfinkel, H. (1963). A conception of and experiments with" trust" as a condition of concerted stable actions. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=c6Quh3jbt8YC&oi=fnd&pg=PA379&dq=garfinkel+breaching+experiment&ots=HoPYg1XUX5&sig=k7EtS0BY7O0prO8nRriMZEmaN0k Cite
Malinowski, B. (2010). Argonauts of the Western Pacific: an account of native enterprise and adventure in the archipelagoes of Melanesian New Guinea. [S.l.]: Benediction Classics. Cite

Place & Space

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Recruitment

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Barratt, M. J., & Lenton, S. (2010). Beyond recruitment? Participatory online research with people who use drugs. International Journal of Internet Research Ethics, 3(1), 69–86. Retrieved from http://espace.library.curtin.edu.au/cgi-bin/espace.pdf?file=/2011/01/17/file_1/151076 Cite
MacDougall, C., & Fudge, E. (2001). Planning and recruiting the sample for focus groups and in-depth interviews. Qualitative Health Research, 11, 117–126. Cite

Rigor, Reliability, Validity

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Antin, T., Constantine, N., & Hunt, G. (2013). Conflicting discourses in qualitative research: The search for divergent data within cases. Field Methods, 27(3). Cite
Booth, A., Carroll, C., Ilott, I., Low, L. L., & Cooper, K. (2013). Desperately seeking dissonance: identifying the disconfirming case in qualitative evidence synthesis. Qualitative Health Research, 23(1), 126–141. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732312466295 Cite
Green, E. C. (2001). Can qualitative research produce reliable quantitative findings? Field Methods, 13(1), 3–19. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2001-14176-001&site=ehost-live Cite
Guest, G., Bunce, A., & Johnson, L. (2006). How Many Interviews Are Enough? Field Methods, 18(1), 59–82. https://doi.org/10.1177/1525822X05279903 Cite
Hammersley, M. (1992). What’s wrong with ethnography?: Methodological explorations. Psychology Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=QVlt_ZdBE-kC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=what%27s+wrong+with+ethnography&ots=1dPH0YJew0&sig=v9mlAayrUD9BHQBNEcEMUeLdX_Y Cite
Handwerker, W. P. (2006). The Evolution of Ethnographic Research Methods: Curiosities and Contradictions in the Qualitative Research Literature. Reviews in Anthropology, 35(1), 105–118. https://doi.org/Article Cite
Huberman, A. M., & Miles, M. B. (1983). Drawing Valid Meaning from Qualitative Data: Some Techniques of Data Reduction and Display. Quality & Quantity, 17(4), 281. https://doi.org/Article Cite
Letourneau, N., & Allen, M. (1999). Post-positivistic critical multiplism: a beginning dialogue. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 30(3), 623–630. Cite
O’Reilly, M., & Parker, N. (2012). ‘Unsatisfactory Saturation’: a critical exploration of the notion of saturated sample sizes in qualitative research. Qualitative Research. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794112446106 Cite
Sparkes, A. C. (2001). Myth 94: Qualitative Health Researchers will Agree about Validity. Qualitative Health Research, 11(4), 538–552. https://doi.org/10.1177/104973230101100409 Cite
Watson, C. (2006). Unreliable narrators? ‘Inconsistency’ (and some inconstancy) in interviews. Qualitative Research, 6(3), 367–384. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794106065008 Cite

Sampling

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Sensory Approaches

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Anderson, K., Nafus, D., Rattenbury, T., & Aipperspach, R. (2009). Numbers Have Qualities Too: Experiences with Ethno-Mining. In Ethnographic Praxis in Industry Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2009, pp. 123–140). Cite
Guillemin, M. (2004). Understanding Illness: Using Drawings as a Research Method. Qualitative Health Research, 14(2), 272–289. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732303260445 Cite
Hsu, W. (2013, January 25). On Digital Ethnography, magnifying the materiality of culture (3 of 4). Retrieved March 20, 2014, from http://ethnographymatters.net/2013/01/25/on-digital-ethnography-magnifying-the-materiality-of-culture-part-3-of-4/ Cite
Jaffe, A., & Walton, S. (2000). The voices people read: Orthography and the representation of non-standard speech. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 4(4), 561–587. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9481.00130 Cite
Pink, S. (2009). Doing sensory ethnography. Sage Publications Ltd. Cite

Transcription

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Bucholtz, M. (2000). The politics of transcription. Journal of Pragmatics, 32(10), 1439–1465. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(99)00094-6 Cite
Jaffe, A., & Walton, S. (2000). The voices people read: Orthography and the representation of non-standard speech. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 4(4), 561–587. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9481.00130 Cite
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