Police Use of Force & Access to Police Data

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Police Use of Force, Police Data Transparency (US Focus)

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Citizen Oversight

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Harris, D. A. (2003). The reality of racial disparity in criminal justice: The significance of data collection. Law and Contemporary Problems, 71–98. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20059189 Cite
Walker, S. (2000). Police Accountability: The Role of Citizen Oversight (1 edition). Wadsworth Publishing. Cite
NACOLE - The National Association for Civilian Oversight of Law Enforcement. (n.d.). NACOLE. Retrieved July 9, 2015, from https://nacole.org Cite
NACOLE Public Comment for the US Commission on Civil Rights Police Practices and UOF. (n.d.). Retrieved July 9, 2015, from https://nacole.org/wp-content/uploads/NACOLE-Public-Comment-for-the-US-Commission-on-Civil-Rights-Police-Practices-and-UOF-Final.pdf Cite

Consent Decrees/Reform

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de Stefan, L. (2016). No Man Is Above the Law and No Man Is Below It: How Qualified Immunity Reform Could Create Accountability and Curb Widespread Police Misconduct Comments. Seton Hall Law Review, 47(2), 543–568. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/shlr47&i=555 Cite
Domanick, J. (n.d.). Police Reform’s Best Tool: A Federal Consent Decree. Retrieved August 1, 2015, from http://www.thecrimereport.org/news/articles/2014-07-police-reforms-best-tool-a-federal-consent-decree Cite
Goff, P. A., Hinton, E., Meares, T. L., Nobo Sarnoff, C., & Tyler, T. R. (n.d.). Re-imagining Public Safety: Prevent Harm and Lead with the Truth. Retrieved June 19, 2020, from https://policingequity.org/images/pdfs-doc/reports/re-imagining_public_safety_final_11.26.19.pdf Cite
La Vigne, N., Jannetta, J., Fontaine, J., Lawrence, D. S., & Esthappan, S. (2019). The National Initiative for Building Community Trust and Justice. Cite
McLively, M., & Nieto, B. (2019). A Case Study in Hope: Lessons from Oakland’s Remarkable Reduction in Gun Violence. Giffords Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence San Francisco (CA). https://policingequity.org/images/pdfs-doc/reports/A-Case-Study-in-Hope.pdf Cite
Mura, J., & Stolberg, S. G. (2015, July 31). Samuel DuBose’s Death in Cincinnati Points to Off-Campus Power of College Police. The New York Times. Cite
Packnett, B., McKesson, D., Elzie, J., & Sinyangwe, S. (n.d.). Police Union Contracts and Police Bill of Rights Analysis. Retrieved June 19, 2020, from https://www.issuelab.org/resource/police-union-contracts-and-police-bill-of-rights-analysis.html Cite
Ray, R. (2020, May 30). Bad apples come from rotten trees in policing. Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/how-we-rise/2020/05/30/bad-apples-come-from-rotten-trees-in-policing/ Cite
Washington, 1818 N. Street NW Suite 300, & Skype, D. 20036 202-742-1520 C. with. (n.d.). Consent decrees open police data, but for a limited time only. Sunlight Foundation. Retrieved October 6, 2015, from http://sunlightfoundation.com/blog/2015/07/23/consent-decrees-open-police-data-but-for-a-limited-time-only/ Cite
American Police Reform and Consent Decrees. (n.d.). Retrieved August 1, 2015, from http://www.truth-out.org/news/item/18455-american-police-reform-and-consent-decrees Cite

Data/Transparency

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Almendrala, A., & Schumaker, E. (2016, July 27). Be Wary Of Studies That Deny Racial Bias In Police Shootings. Huffington Post. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/police-shootings-studies-racial-bias_us_5796f2d8e4b02d5d5ed2b4aa Cite
Amnesty International. (2014). On the Streets of America: Human Rights Abuses in Ferguson. http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/on-the-streets-of-america-human-rights-abuses-in-ferguson Cite
Amnesty International USA. (2014, October 24). Amnesty International Releases New Ferguson Report Documenting Human Rights Abuses. Amnesty International USA. http://www.amnestyusa.org/news/press-releases/amnesty-international-releases-new-ferguson-report-documenting-human-rights-abuses Cite
Andrew. (2014, February 16). Government fails to track data about police shootings. The Bay State Examiner. http://baystateexaminer.com/government-fails-track-data-police-shootings/ Cite
Annechino, R. (2015). Empowering Community Access to Data on Police Use of Force. 143rd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition (October 31-November 4, 2015). https://apha.confex.com/apha/143am/webprogram/Paper330147.html Cite
Atiba Goff, P., & Barsamian Kahn, K. (2012). Racial Bias in Policing: Why We Know Less Than We Should. Social Issues and Policy Review, 6(1), 177–210. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-2409.2011.01039.x Cite
Balko, R. (2012, December 11). Why Are There No Good Data On Police Use Of Force? Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/radley-balko/why-is-there-no-good-data_b_2278013.html Cite
Barry, R. (2014, December 3). Hundreds of Police Killings Are Uncounted in Federal Stats; FBI Data Differs from Local Counts on Justifiable Homicides. The Wall Street Journal Online. http://global.factiva.com/redir/default.aspx?P=sa&an=WSJO000020141203eac3001ur&cat=a&ep=ASE Cite
Barry, R., Jones, C., & Lash, N. (n.d.). WSJ Analysis: Justifiable Homicides by U.S. Law Enforcement. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 7, 2014, from http://graphics.wsj.com/justifiable-homicides-by-police Cite
bart.gov. (n.d.). Office of the Independent Police Auditor (OIPA). Bart.Gov. Retrieved December 5, 2014, from http://www.bart.gov/about/policeauditor Cite
Berzofsky, M., Ewing, G., DeMichele, M., Langton, L., Hyland, S. S., & Davis, E. (2017). Police-Public Contact Survey: Assessment and Recommendations for Producing Trend Estimates after 2011 Questionnaire Redesign. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). https://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5905 Cite
Bialik, C. (n.d.). An Ex-Cop Keeps The Country’s Best Data Set On Police Misconduct. FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved August 14, 2015, from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/an-ex-cop-keeps-the-countrys-best-data-set-on-police-misconduct/ Cite
Bialik, C. (2016, July 21). Why Are So Many Black Americans Killed By Police? FiveThirtyEight. http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/why-are-so-many-black-americans-killed-by-police/ Cite
Borunda, D. (2014, March 8). City refuses to release video of fatal El Paso police shooting of bodybuilder Daniel Saenz. El Paso Times.Com. http://www.elpasotimes.com/news/ci_25300482/city-refuses-release-video-fatal-el-paso-police?source=pkg Cite
Bureau of Justic Statistics. (n.d.). Police-Public Contact Survey (PPCS). Retrieved December 10, 2014, from http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=dcdetail&iid=251 Cite
Burghart, D. B. (n.d.). Fatal Encounters. Fatal Encounters. Retrieved December 5, 2014, from http://www.fatalencounters.org/ Cite
CBS/AP. (2014, December 3). Report: Hundreds of police killings not reported to FBI. CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/report-hundreds-of-police-killings-not-reported-to-fbi/ Cite
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). WISQARS Nonfatal Injury Reports. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved December 10, 2014, from http://webappa.cdc.gov/sasweb/ncipc/nfirates2001.html Cite
Contorno, S. (n.d.). Are deaths from police shootings the highest in 20 years? @politifact. Retrieved December 5, 2014, from http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/2014/dec/03/marc-morial/are-deaths-police-shootings-highest-20-years/ Cite
Cranor, L. (2016, April 27). Open Police Data Re-identification Risks | Federal Trade Commission. https://www.ftc.gov/news-events/blogs/techftc/2016/04/open-police-data-re-identification-risks Cite
Editorial Board. (2012, December 8). Editorial: Progress on deadly force issues with St. Louis police. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. http://www.stltoday.com/news/opinion/columns/the-platform/editorial-progress-on-deadly-force-issues-with-st-louis-police/article_752cf432-4a5e-5eb5-8184-100ec13783df.html Cite
Fan, M. D. (2012). Panopticism for Police: Structural Reform Bargaining and Police Regulation by Data-Driven Surveillance (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2020523). Social Science Research Network. http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2020523 Cite
FBI: Uniform Crime Reporting. (n.d.). 2015 LEOKA Data Sources. FBI. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from https://ucr.fbi.gov/leoka/2015/resource-pages/methodology_felonious_accidental_-2015 Cite
Feldman, J. M., Gruskin, S., Coull, B. A., & Krieger, N. (2017). Killed by Police: Validity of Media-Based Data and Misclassification of Death Certificates in Massachusetts, 2004–2016. American Journal of Public Health, 107(10), 1624–1626. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2017.303940 Cite
Fyfe, J. (2002). Too Many Missing Cases: Holes in Our Knowledge About Police Use of Force. Justice Research and Policy, 4, 87–102. https://doi.org/10.3818/JRP.4.1.2002.87 Cite
Gabrielson, R., Jones, R. G., ProPublica, E. S., 10, O., 2014, & A.m, 11:07. (n.d.). Deadly Force, in Black and White. ProPublica. Retrieved October 12, 2014, from http://www.propublica.org/article/deadly-force-in-black-and-white Cite
Geller, W. A., & Toch, H. (1959). Police Violence: Understanding and Controlling Police Abuse of Force. Yale University Press. Cite
Glaser, J. (2014). Suspect race: Causes and consequences of racial profiling. Oxford University Press. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=3GjDBAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=%22suspect+race%22+jack+glaser&ots=wIIrrBNU7o&sig=68KlYdcUj2devg7o6cQRV2MDRdE Cite
Harris, D. A. (2003). The reality of racial disparity in criminal justice: The significance of data collection. Law and Contemporary Problems, 71–98. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20059189 Cite
Holloway-Beth, A., Forst, L., Lippert, J., Brandt-Rauf, S., Freels, S., & Friedman, L. (2016). Risk factors associated with legal interventions. Injury Epidemiology, 3. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40621-016-0067-6 Cite
Joseph, G. (n.d.). Crowdsourcing Police Accountability. CityLab. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from http://www.citylab.com/crime/2016/10/crowdsourcing-police-accountability/504650/ Cite
Kane, R. J. (2007). Collect and Release Data on Coercive Police Actions*. Criminology & Public Policy, 6(4), 773–780. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9133.2007.00485.x Cite
Kellermann, A. L., Bartolomeos, K., Fuqua-Whitley, D., Sampson, T. R., & Parramore, C. S. (2001). Community-level firearm injury surveillance: Local data for local action. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 38(4), 423–429. https://doi.org/10.1067/mem.2001.117273 Cite
Killed by Police Community. (n.d.). Killed By Police. Facebook. Retrieved December 7, 2014, from https://www.facebook.com/KilledByPolice Cite
Klinger, D. A. (2008). On the Importance of Sound Measures of Forceful Police Actions*. Criminology & Public Policy, 7(4), 605–617. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9133.2008.00529.x Cite
Klinger, D. A. (2012). On the Problems and Promise of Research on Lethal Police Violence A Research Note. Homicide Studies, 16(1), 78–96. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088767911430861 Cite
Koerth-Baker, M. (2016, December 2). Police Violence Against Native Americans Goes Far Beyond Standing Rock. FiveThirtyEight. https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/police-violence-against-native-americans-goes-far-beyond-standing-rock/ Cite
Lee, H. K. (2014, December 5). Legal fight over Oakland officers who win discipline cases. SFGate. http://www.sfgate.com/crime/article/Legal-fight-over-Oakland-officers-who-overturn-5938289.php Cite
Lewis, R., & Veltman, N. (2014, December 5). Lawsuits, Excessive Force, Citizen Complaints — And Still On The Street. http://www.wnyc.org/story/can-the-nypd-spot-the-abusive-cop/?utm_source=sharedUrl&utm_medium=metatag&utm_campaign=sharedUrl Cite
Loftin, C., Wiersema, B., McDowall, D., & Dobrin, A. (2003). Underreporting of Justifiable Homicides Committed by Police Officers in the United States, 1976–1998. American Journal of Public Health, 93(7), 1117–1121. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1447919/ Cite
McCarthy, T. (2015, March 18). The uncounted: why the US can’t keep track of people killed by police. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/mar/18/police-killings-government-data-count Cite
Mumola, C. J. (2007). Arrest-Related Deaths in the United States, 2003-2005 (Special Report). Bureau of Justice Statistics. http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/ardus05.pdf Cite
Ortellado, D., & Foundation, S. (2014, September 5). CDC: Hospital data shows racial disparity in injuries caused by police. Philly.Com. http://www.philly.com/philly/health/CDC_Hospital_data_shows_racial_disparity_in_injuries_caused_by_police.html Cite
Packman, D. (2010, May 2). Another Look at Police Transparency vs Officer Safety. PoliceMisconduct.Net. http://www.policemisconduct.net/another-look-at-police-transparency-vs-officer-safety/ Cite
PUEBLO. (n.d.). PUEBLO: People United for a Better Life in Oakland. Retrieved July 25, 2014, from http://www.peopleunited.org/ Cite
Ross, D. (n.d.). 5 Ways to Jumpstart the Release of Open Data on Policing. Code for America. Retrieved July 9, 2015, from http://www.codeforamerica.org/blog/2015/05/17/5-ways-to-jumpstart-the-release-of-open-data-on-policing/ Cite
Sikora, A. G., & Mulvihill, M. (2002). Trends in Mortality Due to Legal Intervention in the United States, 1979 Through 1997. American Journal of Public Health, 92(5), 841–843. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1447171/ Cite
Sinyangwe, S., Elzie, J., & McKesson, D. (n.d.). The National Police Violence Map. Mapping Police Violence. Retrieved March 10, 2015, from http://mappingpoliceviolence.org/ Cite
Swaine, J., Laughl, O., & York, J. L. in N. (n.d.). Black Americans killed by police twice as likely to be unarmed as white people. The Guardian. Retrieved June 1, 2015, from http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/jun/01/black-americans-killed-by-police-analysis Cite
Wagner, K. (2014, August 29). We’re Compiling Every Police-Involved Shooting In America. Help Us. Regressing. http://regressing.deadspin.com/were-compiling-every-police-involved-shooting-in-americ-1624180387 Cite

Department Assessment

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Associated Press in Cleveland. (2014, December 4). Cleveland police use excessive force far too often, stinging government report finds. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2014/dec/04/cleveland-police-excessive-force-report Cite
Bornstein, A. (2005). Antiterrorist Policing in New York City after 9/11: Comparing Perspectives on a Complex Process. Human Organization, 64(1), 52–61. https://doi.org/10.17730/humo.64.1.mf00296tl98bk2l5 Cite
Goff, P. A., Lloyd, T., Geller, A., Raphael, S., & Glaser, J. (2016). The Science of Justice: Race, Arrests, and Police Use of Force. http://policingequity.org/research/1687-2/ Cite
Smith, M. R., Kaminski, R. J., Alpert, G. P., Fridell, L. A., MacDonald, J., & Kubu, B. (2009). A multi-method evaluation of police use of force outcomes: Final report to the National Institute of Justice. Washington, DC: US Justice Department. http://internationalresponsestocrime.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/86744632/smith%20kaminski%20alpert%20fridell%20macdonald%20and%20kubu%202010%20use%20of%20force%20and%20injury%20study.pdf Cite
Stewart, J. K., Fachner, G., Rodriguez King, D., & Rickman, S. (2012). Collaborative Reform Process: A Review of Officer-Involved Shootings in the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department. http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/pdf/e10129513-Collaborative-Reform-Process_FINAL.pdf Cite
Terrill, W., Paoline, E., & Ingram, J. (2010). Final technical report draft: assessing police use of force policy and outcomes. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice. http://scholar.google.com/scholar_url?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ncjrs.gov%2FApp%2FPublications%2Fabstract.aspx%3FID%3D259826&hl=en&sa=T&ct=res&cd=0&ei=vmzRVIyRJNDVqQHciIHgDw&scisig=AAGBfm3fgzyFOEX7j0RIS3wLwlqMcKRppw&nossl=1&ws=1280x663 Cite
WeTheProtesters. (n.d.). #CheckThePolice Rating System. Retrieved May 26, 2015, from http://www.checkthepolice.org/ Cite
EverytownPD.City.Report-2016-07 - EverytownPD.City_.Report-FINAL.pdf. (n.d.). Retrieved July 9, 2016, from http://policingequity.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/EverytownPD.City_.Report-FINAL.pdf Cite

Disability/Mental Illness

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Barry, R. (2014, December 3). Hundreds of Police Killings Are Uncounted in Federal Stats; FBI Data Differs from Local Counts on Justifiable Homicides. The Wall Street Journal Online. http://global.factiva.com/redir/default.aspx?P=sa&an=WSJO000020141203eac3001ur&cat=a&ep=ASE Cite
Borum, R. (2000). Improving high risk encounters between people with mental illness and police. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 28. http://works.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1024&context=randy_borum Cite
Fields, G. (2013, October 22). Lives of Mentally Ill, Police Collide; Law-enforcement professionals and mental-health advocates believe they are seeing an increase in fatal encounters between police and the mentally ill. Wall Street Journal (Online), n/a. http://search.proquest.com/docview/1443922845/867225632A0E42A4PQ/1?accountid=14496 Cite
Morabito, M. S., Kerr, A. N., Watson, A., Draine, J., Ottati, V., & Angell, B. (2012). Crisis Intervention Teams and People With Mental Illness Exploring the Factors That Influence the Use of Force. Crime & Delinquency, 58(1), 57–77. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128710372456 Cite
Vargas, T. (2013, March 22). Grand jury rejects criminal charges in death of Robert Saylor, man with Down syndrome. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/no-criminal-charges-in-death-of-robert-saylor-frederick-man-with-down-syndrome/2013/03/22/3a723b6c-932f-11e2-8ea1-956c94b6b5b9_story.html Cite

Drug Policing

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Cooper, H. L. (2015). War on Drugs Policing and Police Brutality. Substance Use & Misuse, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.3109/10826084.2015.1007669 Cite

Early Warning Systems

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Alpert, G. P., & Walker, S. (2000). Police Accountability and Early Warning Systems: Developing Policies and Programs. Justice Research and Policy, 2(2), 59–72. https://doi.org/10.3818/JRP.2.2.2000.59 Cite
Bazley, T. D., Mieczkowski, T., & Lersch, K. M. (2009). Early intervention program criteria: evaluating officer use of force. Justice Quarterly, 26(1), 107–124. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418820801989742 Cite
Shjarback, J. A. (2015). Emerging Early Intervention Systems: An Agency-Specific Pre-Post Comparison of Formal Citizen Complaints of Use of Force. Policing, pav006. http://policing.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/03/04/police.pav006.short Cite
Walker, S. (2003). Early intervention systems for law enforcement agencies: A planning and management guide. US Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/abstractdb/AbstractDBDetails.aspx?id=201245 Cite
Walker, S., Alpert, G. P., & Kenney, D. J. (2000). Early Warning Systems for Police: Concept, History, and Issues. Police Quarterly, 3(2), 132–152. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098611100003002001 Cite
Early Warning Systems: Responding to the Problem Police Officer (RIB) - earlywarn.pdf. (n.d.). Retrieved July 9, 2015, from http://zimmer.csufresno.edu/~haralds/Linkpages/reports/earlywarn.pdf Cite
Lawsuits, Excessive Force, Citizen Complaints — And Still On The Street. (n.d.). Retrieved July 24, 2015, from http://www.wnyc.org/story/can-the-nypd-spot-the-abusive-cop/?utm_source=sharedUrl&utm_medium=metatag&utm_campaign=sharedUrl Cite

Factors in Use of Force

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Adams, N. (2014). Deciding Force Project. Deciding Force Project. http://www.decidingforce.org/ Cite
Amnesty International. (2005). Stonewalled: Police abuse and misconduct against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in the US. Amnesty International Publications New York, NY. Cite
Amnesty International USA. (2014, October 24). Amnesty International Releases New Ferguson Report Documenting Human Rights Abuses. Amnesty International USA. http://www.amnestyusa.org/news/press-releases/amnesty-international-releases-new-ferguson-report-documenting-human-rights-abuses Cite
Bui, Q., & Cox, A. (2016, July 11). Surprising New Evidence Shows Bias in Police Use of Force but Not in Shootings. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/12/upshot/surprising-new-evidence-shows-bias-in-police-use-of-force-but-not-in-shootings.html Cite
Burke, R. J., & Mikkelsen, A. (2005). Burnout, job stress and attitudes towards the use of force by Norwegian police officers. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 28(2), 269–278. https://doi.org/10.1108/13639510510597906 Cite
Chibbaro, Jr., L. (2013, January 11). Probation for D.C. cop in trans shooting case. Washington Blade: Gay News, Politics, LGBT Rights. http://www.washingtonblade.com/2013/01/11/probation-for-d-c-cop-in-trans-shooting-case/ Cite
Eberhardt, J. L., Goff, P. A., Purdie, V. J., & Davies, P. G. (2004). Seeing Black: Race, Crime, and Visual Processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(6), 876–893. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.87.6.876 Cite
Fields, G. (2013, October 22). Lives of Mentally Ill, Police Collide; Law-enforcement professionals and mental-health advocates believe they are seeing an increase in fatal encounters between police and the mentally ill. Wall Street Journal (Online), n/a. http://search.proquest.com/docview/1443922845/867225632A0E42A4PQ/1?accountid=14496 Cite
Gabrielson, R., Jones, R. G., ProPublica, E. S., 10, O., 2014, & A.m, 11:07. (n.d.). Deadly Force, in Black and White. ProPublica. Retrieved October 12, 2014, from http://www.propublica.org/article/deadly-force-in-black-and-white Cite
Gerstenberger, D., Beatty, K., & Weatherby, G. A. (2014). Factors Influencing Fatal Officer-Involved Shootings. Journal of Law and Criminal Justice, 2(1), 273–298. http://aripd.org/journals/jlcj/Vol_2_No_1_March_2014/13.pdf Cite
Glaser, J. (2014). Suspect race: Causes and consequences of racial profiling. Oxford University Press. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=3GjDBAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=%22suspect+race%22+jack+glaser&ots=wIIrrBNU7o&sig=68KlYdcUj2devg7o6cQRV2MDRdE Cite
Goff, P. A., Eberhardt, J. L., Williams, M. J., & Jackson, M. C. (2008). Not yet human: Implicit knowledge, historical dehumanization, and contemporary consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(2), 292–306. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.94.2.292 Cite
Goff, P. A., Lloyd, T., Geller, A., Raphael, S., & Glaser, J. (2016). The Science of Justice: Race, Arrests, and Police Use of Force. http://policingequity.org/research/1687-2/ Cite
Grant, J. M., Mottet, L., Tanis, J. E., Harrison, J., Herman, J., & Keisling, M. (2011). Injustice at every turn: a report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. National Center for Transgender Equality. Cite
Harrison, J., Grant, J., & Herman, J. L. (2012). A Gender Not Listed Here: Genderqueers, Gender Rebels, and OtherWise in the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. LGBTQ Public Policy Journal at the Harvard Kennedy School, 2(1). http://escholarship.org/uc/item/2zj46213 Cite
Hirschman, A. D. (2016, July 11). yes, there is racial “bias” in police shootings. Scatterplot. https://scatter.wordpress.com/2016/07/11/yes-there-is-racial-bias-in-police-shootings/ Cite
Holloway-Beth, A., Forst, L., Lippert, J., Brandt-Rauf, S., Freels, S., & Friedman, L. (2016). Risk factors associated with legal interventions. Injury Epidemiology, 3. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40621-016-0067-6 Cite
Ingraham, C. (2015, May 6). These cops are tired of white people getting freaked out by their black neighbors. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2015/05/06/these-cops-are-tired-of-white-people-getting-freaked-out-by-their-black-neighbors/ Cite
Kahn, K. B., Goff, P. A., Lee, J. K., & Motamed, D. (2016). Protecting Whiteness: White Phenotypic Racial Stereotypicality Reduces Police Use of Force. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7(5), 403–411. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550616633505 Cite
Klinger, D. A., & Brunson, R. K. (2009). Police officers’ perceptual distortions during lethal force situations: Informing the reasonableness standard*. Criminology & Public Policy, 8(1), 117–140. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9133.2009.00537.x Cite
Kop, N., Euwema, M., & Schaufeli, W. (1999). Burnout, job stress and violent behaviour among Dutch police officers. Work & Stress, 13(4), 326–340. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678379950019789 Cite
National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. (2014). Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and HIV-Affected Hate Violence in 2013. http://www.avp.org/storage/documents/2013_ncavp_hvreport_final.pdf Cite
Obasogie, O. K., & Newman, Z. (2017). The Futile Fourth Amendment: Understanding Police Excessive Force Doctrine through an Empirical Assessment of Graham v. Connor A Fear of Too Much Justice: Equal Protection and the Social Sciences Thirty Years of McCleskey v. Kemp Symposium: Empirical Demonstrations: Social Science and Racial Justice. Northwestern University Law Review, 112(6), 1465–1500. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/illlr112&i=1521 Cite
Smith, B. W., & Holmes, M. D. (2014). Police Use of Excessive Force in Minority Communities: A Test of the Minority Threat, Place, and Community Accountability Hypotheses. Social Problems, 61(1), 83–104. http://www.thecyberhood.net/documents/papers/Smith2014.pdf Cite
Smith, M. R., Kaminski, R. J., Alpert, G. P., Fridell, L. A., MacDonald, J., & Kubu, B. (2009). A multi-method evaluation of police use of force outcomes: Final report to the National Institute of Justice. Washington, DC: US Justice Department. http://internationalresponsestocrime.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/86744632/smith%20kaminski%20alpert%20fridell%20macdonald%20and%20kubu%202010%20use%20of%20force%20and%20injury%20study.pdf Cite
TAKAGI, P. (1974). A Garrison State In “Democratic” Society. Crime and Social Justice, 1, 27–33. http://www.jstor.org/stable/29765885 Cite
Terrill, W., & Reisig, M. D. (2003). Neighborhood Context and Police Use of Force. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40(3), 291–321. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427803253800 Cite
Wolff, K. B., & Cokely, C. L. (2007). “To Protect and to Serve?”: An Exploration of Police Conduct in Relation to the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Community. Sexuality and Culture, 11(2), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12119-007-9000-z Cite
Zakrison, T. L., Hamel, P. A., & Hwang, S. W. (2004). Homeless people’s trust and interactions with police and paramedics. Journal of Urban Health, 81(4), 596–605. http://www.springerlink.com/index/L13127JL77R57411.pdf Cite

Force Continuum

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Adams, K., Alpert, G. P., Dunham, R. G., Garner, L. A. G., Henriquez, M. A., Langan, P. A., Maxwell, C. D., & Smith, S. K. (1999). Use of Force By Police: Overview of National and Local Data Series: Research Report. NCJ. http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles1/nij/176330.txt Cite
Alpert, G. P. (2004). Understanding Police Use of Force: Officers, Suspects, and Reciprocity. Cambridge University Press. Cite
Goff, P. A., Lloyd, T., Geller, A., Raphael, S., & Glaser, J. (2016). The Science of Justice: Race, Arrests, and Police Use of Force. http://policingequity.org/research/1687-2/ Cite
Hickman, M. J., Atherley, L. T., Lowery, P. G., & Alpert, G. P. (2015). Reliability of the Force Factor Method in Police Use-of-Force Research. Police Quarterly, 18(4), 368–396. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098611115586175 Cite
MacDonald, J. M., Kaminski, R. J., & Smith, M. R. (2009). The Effect of Less-Lethal Weapons on Injuries in Police Use-of-Force Events. American Journal of Public Health, 99(12), 2268–2274. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2009.159616 Cite
Matrofski, S. D., Parks, R. B., Worden, R. E., & Reiss, A. J. (n.d.). Project on Policing Neighborhoods in Indianapolis, Indiana, and St. Petersburg, Florida, 1996-1997. National Archive of Criminal Justice Data. Retrieved February 4, 2015, from http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ICPSR/studies/03160 Cite
Michael R. Smith, Robert J. Kaminski, Jeffrey Rojek, Geoffrey P. Alpert, & Jason Mathis. (2007). The impact of conducted energy devices and other types of force and resistance on officer and suspect injuries. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 30(3), 423–446. https://doi.org/10.1108/13639510710778822 Cite
Obasogie, O. K., & Newman, Z. (2017). The Futile Fourth Amendment: Understanding Police Excessive Force Doctrine through an Empirical Assessment of Graham v. Connor A Fear of Too Much Justice: Equal Protection and the Social Sciences Thirty Years of McCleskey v. Kemp Symposium: Empirical Demonstrations: Social Science and Racial Justice. Northwestern University Law Review, 112(6), 1465–1500. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/illlr112&i=1521 Cite
Smith, M. R., Kaminski, R. J., Alpert, G. P., Fridell, L. A., MacDonald, J., & Kubu, B. (2009). A multi-method evaluation of police use of force outcomes: Final report to the National Institute of Justice. Washington, DC: US Justice Department. http://internationalresponsestocrime.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/86744632/smith%20kaminski%20alpert%20fridell%20macdonald%20and%20kubu%202010%20use%20of%20force%20and%20injury%20study.pdf Cite
Stoudt, B. G., Fine, M., & Fox, M. (2011). Growing up Policed in the Age of Aggressive Policing Policies I. Juvenile Justice Reform in New York. New York Law School Law Review, 56(4), 1331–1372. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/nyls56&i=1325 Cite
Terrill, W., & Paoline III, E. A. (2012). Conducted Energy Devices (CEDs) and Citizen Injuries: The Shocking Empirical Reality. Justice Quarterly, 29(2), 153–182. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2010.549834 Cite
Terrill, W., Paoline, E., & Ingram, J. (2010). Final technical report draft: assessing police use of force policy and outcomes. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice. http://scholar.google.com/scholar_url?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ncjrs.gov%2FApp%2FPublications%2Fabstract.aspx%3FID%3D259826&hl=en&sa=T&ct=res&cd=0&ei=vmzRVIyRJNDVqQHciIHgDw&scisig=AAGBfm3fgzyFOEX7j0RIS3wLwlqMcKRppw&nossl=1&ws=1280x663 Cite
The (Original) Use of Force Model. (n.d.). Retrieved August 22, 2015, from http://www.pss.cc/uofm.htm Cite

Gender

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Bazley, T. D., Lersch, K. M., & Mieczkowski, T. (2007). Officer force versus suspect resistance: A gendered analysis of patrol officers in an urban police department. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35(2), 183–192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2007.01.005 Cite
Brunson, R. K., & Miller, J. (2006). Young Black Men and Urban Policing in the United States. The British Journal of Criminology, 46(4), 613–640. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azi093 Cite
Brunson, R. K., & Miller, J. (2006). Gender, Race, and Urban Policing: The Experience of African American Youths. Gender & Society, 20(4), 531–552. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243206287727 Cite
Chibbaro, Jr., L. (2013, January 11). Probation for D.C. cop in trans shooting case. Washington Blade: Gay News, Politics, LGBT Rights. http://www.washingtonblade.com/2013/01/11/probation-for-d-c-cop-in-trans-shooting-case/ Cite
Crenshaw, K., Ritchie, A. J., Anspach, R., Gilmer, R., & Harris, L. (2015). Say her name: Resisting police brutality against black women. Cite
Danielle. (2014, December 6). Know these names? Here’s a list of black women murdered by police. #BlackLivesMatter pic.twitter.com/ZTZpuvTs8Z [Microblog]. @daneyvilla. https://twitter.com/daneyvilla/status/541084913924337665 Cite
Eberhardt, J. L., Goff, P. A., Purdie, V. J., & Davies, P. G. (2004). Seeing Black: Race, Crime, and Visual Processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(6), 876–893. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.87.6.876 Cite
Fedina, L., Backes, B. L., Jun, H.-J., Shah, R., Nam, B., Link, B. G., & DeVylder, J. E. (2018). Police violence among women in four U.S. cities. Preventive Medicine, 106, 150–156. Cite
Gabrielson, R., Jones, R. G., ProPublica, E. S., 10, O., 2014, & A.m, 11:07. (n.d.). Deadly Force, in Black and White. ProPublica. Retrieved October 12, 2014, from http://www.propublica.org/article/deadly-force-in-black-and-white Cite
Gilbert, K. L., & Ray, R. (2016). Why Police Kill Black Males with Impunity: Applying Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to Address the Determinants of Policing Behaviors and “Justifiable” Homicides in the USA. Journal of Urban Health, 93(1), 122–140. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-015-0005-x Cite
Grant, J. M., Mottet, L., Tanis, J. E., Harrison, J., Herman, J., & Keisling, M. (2011). Injustice at every turn: a report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. National Center for Transgender Equality. Cite
Harrison, J., Grant, J., & Herman, J. L. (2012). A Gender Not Listed Here: Genderqueers, Gender Rebels, and OtherWise in the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. LGBTQ Public Policy Journal at the Harvard Kennedy School, 2(1). http://escholarship.org/uc/item/2zj46213 Cite
Hoffman, P. B., & Hickey, E. R. (2005). Use of force by female police officers. Journal of Criminal Justice, 33(2), 145–151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2004.12.006 Cite
National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. (2014). Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and HIV-Affected Hate Violence in 2013. http://www.avp.org/storage/documents/2013_ncavp_hvreport_final.pdf Cite
Ritchie, A. J. (2017). Invisible no more: Police violence against Black women and women of color. Beacon Press. Cite
#SayHerName Brief. (n.d.). AAPF. Retrieved September 29, 2019, from http://aapf.org/sayhernamereport Cite

Law and Policy

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Amnesty International. (2014). On the Streets of America: Human Rights Abuses in Ferguson. http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/on-the-streets-of-america-human-rights-abuses-in-ferguson Cite
Amnesty International USA. (2014, October 24). Amnesty International Releases New Ferguson Report Documenting Human Rights Abuses. Amnesty International USA. http://www.amnestyusa.org/news/press-releases/amnesty-international-releases-new-ferguson-report-documenting-human-rights-abuses Cite
Associated Press in Cleveland. (2014, December 4). Cleveland police use excessive force far too often, stinging government report finds. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2014/dec/04/cleveland-police-excessive-force-report Cite
California Penal Code. (n.d.). California Penal Code Section 832.7 - California Attorney Resources - California Laws. Law.Oncle. Retrieved July 25, 2014, from http://law.onecle.com/california/penal/832.7.html Cite
Chemerinsky, E. (2014, August 26). How the Supreme Court Protects Bad Cops. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/27/opinion/how-the-supreme-court-protects-bad-cops.html Cite
Connolly, M. (2014, December 13). Congress Just Passed a Bill Addressing Police Killings While No One Was Looking. News.Mic. http://mic.com/articles/106392/congress-just-passed-a-bill-addressing-police-killings-while-no-one-was-looking Cite
Epstein, L. M., & Goff, P. A. (2011). Safety or Liberty?: The Bogus Trade-Off of Cross-Deputization Policy. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 11(1), 314–324. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-2415.2011.01246.x Cite
Garcia, A. (2014, December 6). No Charges For Cop Who Broke Face Of Handcuffed Woman In Patrol Car. TPM. http://talkingpointsmemo.com/livewire/cop-punched-handcuffed-woman-no-indictment Cite
Goff, P. A., Epstein, L. M., & Reddy, K. S. (2013). Crossing the line of legitimacy: The impact of cross-deputization policy on crime reporting. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 19(2), 250–258. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0030123 Cite
Halsne, C. (n.d.). Denver Police accused of using excessive force, illegal search. FOX31 Denver. Retrieved December 17, 2014, from http://kdvr.com/2014/11/24/denver-police-accused-of-excessive-force-illegal-search/ Cite
Hudson, R. (2014, December 6). Being a cop showed me just how racist and violent the police are. There’s only one fix. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2014/12/06/i-was-a-st-louis-cop-my-peers-were-racist-and-violent-and-theres-only-one-fix/ Cite
Klinger, D. A. (2012). On the Problems and Promise of Research on Lethal Police Violence A Research Note. Homicide Studies, 16(1), 78–96. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088767911430861 Cite
Lee, H. K. (2014, December 5). Legal fight over Oakland officers who win discipline cases. SFGate. http://www.sfgate.com/crime/article/Legal-fight-over-Oakland-officers-who-overturn-5938289.php Cite
Lewis, R., & Veltman, N. (2014, December 5). Lawsuits, Excessive Force, Citizen Complaints — And Still On The Street. http://www.wnyc.org/story/can-the-nypd-spot-the-abusive-cop/?utm_source=sharedUrl&utm_medium=metatag&utm_campaign=sharedUrl Cite
Palazzolo, J. (2014, December 3). A Better Way To Investigate Police Killings? http://blogs.wsj.com/law/2014/12/03/a-better-way-to-investigate-police-shootings/?mod=e2tw Cite
PolicyLink. (n.d.). Practices to Minimize Use of Force. PolicyLink. Retrieved December 10, 2014, from http://www.policylink.org/book/export/html/9031 Cite
Taub, A., & Posner, J. (2014, November 25). Why it’s so rare for police to be prosecuted for killing civilians, explained in 2 minutes. Vox. http://www.vox.com/2014/11/25/7279445/police-killing-civilians-law Cite
Walker, S. (2003). New Paradigm of Police Accountability: The US Justice Department Pattern or Practice Suits in Context, The. . . Louis U. Pub. L. Rev., 22, 3. http://heinonlinebackup.com/hol-cgi-bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/stlpl22§ion=7 Cite
Walker, S. (2012). Institutionalizing police accountability reforms: The problem of making police reforms endure. . . Louis U. Pub. L. Rev., 32, 57. http://heinonlinebackup.com/hol-cgi-bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/stlpl32§ion=8 Cite
Wilder, K. M. (2011). Building a model for policing communities with competing and converging interests [CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK]. http://gradworks.umi.com/34/79/3479039.html Cite
Wing, N. (2014, December 3). A Grand Jury Did Indict One Person Involved In Eric Garner’s Killing -- The Man Who Filmed It. The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/12/03/ramsey-orta-indictment-eric-garner_n_6264746.html Cite
Winston, A. (2011, August 17). Deadly Secrets: How California Law Shields Oakland Police Violence. Colorlines. http://colorlines.com/archives/2011/08/deadly_secrets_how_california_law_has_shielded_oakland_police_violence.html Cite
Deadly Force: Police Use of Lethal Force In The United States. (n.d.). Amnesty International USA. Retrieved July 8, 2015, from http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/deadly-force-police-use-of-lethal-force-in-the-united-states Cite
Graham v. Connor. (n.d.). Findlaw. Retrieved August 22, 2015, from http://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-supreme-court/490/386.html Cite
Robinson v. Solano County. (n.d.). Findlaw. Retrieved August 22, 2015, from http://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-9th-circuit/1019258.html Cite
Police Disciplinary Records Dating To 1967 Must Be Made Public, Court Rules. (n.d.). DNAinfo Chicago. Retrieved July 9, 2016, from https://www.dnainfo.com/chicago/20160708/bronzeville/police-disciplinary-records-dating-back-1967-must-be-made-public-judge Cite

LGBTQ+

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Amnesty International. (2005). Stonewalled: Police abuse and misconduct against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in the US. Amnesty International Publications New York, NY. Cite
Chibbaro, Jr., L. (2013, January 11). Probation for D.C. cop in trans shooting case. Washington Blade: Gay News, Politics, LGBT Rights. http://www.washingtonblade.com/2013/01/11/probation-for-d-c-cop-in-trans-shooting-case/ Cite
Grant, J. M., Mottet, L., Tanis, J. E., Harrison, J., Herman, J., & Keisling, M. (2011). Injustice at every turn: a report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. National Center for Transgender Equality. Cite
Harrison, J., Grant, J., & Herman, J. L. (2012). A Gender Not Listed Here: Genderqueers, Gender Rebels, and OtherWise in the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. LGBTQ Public Policy Journal at the Harvard Kennedy School, 2(1). http://escholarship.org/uc/item/2zj46213 Cite
National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. (2014). Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and HIV-Affected Hate Violence in 2013. http://www.avp.org/storage/documents/2013_ncavp_hvreport_final.pdf Cite
Wolff, K. B., & Cokely, C. L. (2007). “To Protect and to Serve?”: An Exploration of Police Conduct in Relation to the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Community. Sexuality and Culture, 11(2), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12119-007-9000-z Cite

Neighborhood

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Terrill, W., & Reisig, M. D. (2003). Neighborhood Context and Police Use of Force. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40(3), 291–321. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427803253800 Cite

Oakland/California Specific
(not updated)

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Antony, M. G., & Thomas, R. J. (2010). ‘This is citizen journalism at its finest’: YouTube and the public sphere in the Oscar Grant shooting incident. New Media & Society, 12(8), 1280–1296. http://nms.sagepub.com/content/12/8/1280.short Cite
bart.gov. (n.d.). Office of the Independent Police Auditor (OIPA). Bart.Gov. Retrieved December 5, 2014, from http://www.bart.gov/about/policeauditor Cite
California Department of Public Health. (n.d.). California’s Electronic Violent Death Reporting System (CalEVDRS). California Department of Public Health. Retrieved June 12, 2014, from http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/Pages/CalEVDRS.aspx Cite
California Penal Code. (n.d.). California Penal Code Section 832.7 - California Attorney Resources - California Laws. Law.Oncle. Retrieved July 25, 2014, from http://law.onecle.com/california/penal/832.7.html Cite
Code for America 2013 Fellows. (n.d.). RecordTrac. City of Oakland. Retrieved July 27, 2014, from http://records.oaklandnet.com/ Cite
Egelko, B. (2013, August 7). Blame in Oscar Grant BART death may shift. SFGate. http://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/Blame-in-Oscar-Grant-BART-death-may-shift-4713100.php Cite
Elinson, Z., & Walter, S. (2011, July 16). In San Francisco, Latest BART Shooting Prompts New Discussion of Reforms. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/17/us/17bcbart.html Cite
Erickson, B. (2014, August 21). Blue on black violence and original crime: a view from Oakland, California. Anthropoliteia. http://anthropoliteia.net/2014/08/21/blue-on-black-violence-and-original-crime-a-view-from-oakland-california/ Cite
Hyatt, A. (2014, April 2). Oakland’s Most Decorated Officers Responsible for High Number of Brutality Lawsuits, Shootings - Oakland Police Beat. Oakland Police Beat. http://oaklandpolicebeat.com/2014/04/oaklands-most-decorated-officers-responsible-for-high-number-of-brutality-lawsuits-shootings/ Cite
Lee, H. K. (2014, December 5). Legal fight over Oakland officers who win discipline cases. SFGate. http://www.sfgate.com/crime/article/Legal-fight-over-Oakland-officers-who-overturn-5938289.php Cite
McLively, M., & Nieto, B. (2019). A Case Study in Hope: Lessons from Oakland’s Remarkable Reduction in Gun Violence. Giffords Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence San Francisco (CA). https://policingequity.org/images/pdfs-doc/reports/A-Case-Study-in-Hope.pdf Cite
Winston, A. (2011, August 17). Deadly Secrets: How California Law Shields Oakland Police Violence. Colorlines. http://colorlines.com/archives/2011/08/deadly_secrets_how_california_law_has_shielded_oakland_police_violence.html Cite
Oakland Police Beat. (n.d.). Retrieved January 9, 2015, from http://oaklandpolicebeat.com/ Cite
How deeply rooted biases affect how police enforce the law. (n.d.). PBS NewsHour. Retrieved July 9, 2015, from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/deeply-rooted-biases-affect-police-enforce-law/ Cite
Policy and Reports | bart.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved August 22, 2015, from http://www.bart.gov/about/police/reports Cite
Robinson v. Solano County. (n.d.). Findlaw. Retrieved August 22, 2015, from http://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-9th-circuit/1019258.html Cite
Public can now see California data on arrests and deaths in police custody. (n.d.). Latimes.Com. Retrieved October 7, 2015, from http://www.latimes.com/local/crime/la-me-police-transparency-20150903-story.html Cite

Protest

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Adams, N. (2014). Deciding Force Project. Deciding Force Project. http://www.decidingforce.org/ Cite
Amnesty International. (2014). On the Streets of America: Human Rights Abuses in Ferguson. http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/on-the-streets-of-america-human-rights-abuses-in-ferguson Cite
Davenport, C., Soule, S. A., & II, D. A. A. (2011). Protesting While Black? The Differential Policing of American Activism, 1960 to 1990. American Sociological Review, 76(1), 152–178. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25782184 Cite
Geron, S. M. (2014). 21st Century strategies for policing protest: what major cities’ responses to the Occupy Movement tell US about the future of police response to public protest [Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School]. http://calhoun.nps.edu/public/handle/10945/41382 Cite

Public Health Perspective

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Alang, S., McAlpine, D., McCreedy, E., & Hardeman, R. (2017). Police Brutality and Black Health: Setting the Agenda for Public Health Scholars. American Journal of Public Health, 107(5), 662–665. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2017.303691 Cite
Bor, J., Venkataramani, A. S., Williams, D. R., & Tsai, A. C. (2018). Police killings and their spillover effects on the mental health of black Americans: a population-based, quasi-experimental study. The Lancet, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31130-9 Cite
Boyd, R. (n.d.). Police Violence and Public Health | KQED. KQED Public Media. Retrieved May 12, 2015, from http://www.kqed.org/a/perspectives/R201504290643 Cite
Burke, R. J., & Mikkelsen, A. (2005). Burnout, job stress and attitudes towards the use of force by Norwegian police officers. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 28(2), 269–278. https://doi.org/10.1108/13639510510597906 Cite
California Department of Public Health. (n.d.). California’s Electronic Violent Death Reporting System (CalEVDRS). California Department of Public Health. Retrieved June 12, 2014, from http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/Pages/CalEVDRS.aspx Cite
CDC Violence Prevention|Injury Center. (n.d.). The Public Health Approach to Violence Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved September 12, 2018, from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/overview/publichealthapproach.html Cite
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). WISQARS Nonfatal Injury Reports. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved December 10, 2014, from http://webappa.cdc.gov/sasweb/ncipc/nfirates2001.html Cite
Clair, M. E. (2006). The relationship between critical incidents, hostility and PTSD symptoms in police officers [Drexel University]. https://idea.library.drexel.edu/islandora/object/idea%3A1118/datastream/OBJ/download/The_relationship_between_critical_incidents__hostility_and_PTSD_symptoms_in_police_officers.pdf Cite
Collins, S. P. K. (2014, December 15). Why People Of Color Don’t Call For An Ambulance. http://thinkprogress.org/health/2014/12/15/3603690/distrust-police-emergency-care/ Cite
Cooper, H., & Fullilove, M. (2016). Editorial: Excessive Police Violence as a Public Health Issue. J Urban Health. Cite
Cooper, H., Moore, L., Gruskin, S., & Krieger, N. (2004). Characterizing Perceived Police Violence: Implications for Public Health. American Journal of Public Health, 94(7), 1109–1118. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448406/ Cite
DeVylder, J. E., Oh, H. Y., Nam, B., Sharpe, T. L., Lehmann, M., & Link, B. G. (2017). Prevalence, demographic variation and psychological correlates of exposure to police victimisation in four US cities. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 26(5), 466–477. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2045796016000810 Cite
Feldman, J. M., Gruskin, S., Coull, B. A., & Krieger, N. (2019). Police-Related Deaths and Neighborhood Economic and Racial/Ethnic Polarization, United States, 2015-2016. American Journal of Public Health, 109(3), 458–464. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2018.304851 Cite
Fields, G. (2013, October 22). Lives of Mentally Ill, Police Collide; Law-enforcement professionals and mental-health advocates believe they are seeing an increase in fatal encounters between police and the mentally ill. Wall Street Journal (Online), n/a. http://search.proquest.com/docview/1443922845/867225632A0E42A4PQ/1?accountid=14496 Cite
Gilbert, K. L., & Ray, R. (2016). Why Police Kill Black Males with Impunity: Applying Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to Address the Determinants of Policing Behaviors and “Justifiable” Homicides in the USA. Journal of Urban Health, 93(1), 122–140. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-015-0005-x Cite
Gilbert, K. L., Ray, R., Byrd, W. C., Richardson, J., & Johnson, O. (2018). The Matter of Lives Underneath Black Male Skin: Using Theory and Media to Explore the Case of “Justifiable Homicides” for Black Males. In Inequality, Crime, and Health Among African American Males (Vol. 20, pp. 171–183). Emerald Publishing Limited. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0195-744920180000020011 Cite
Gomez, M. B. (2016). Policing, Community Fragmentation, and Public Health: Observations from Baltimore. Journal of Urban Health, 93(1), 154–167. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-015-0022-9 Cite
Gray, R. M., Green, R., Bryant, J., Rance, J., & MacLean, S. (2017). How ‘Vulnerable’ young people describe their interactions with police: building positive pathways to drug diversion and treatment in Sydney and Melbourne, Australia. Police Practice and Research, 0(0), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/15614263.2017.1347787 Cite
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Kramer, R., & Remster, B. (2018). Stop, Frisk, and Assault? Racial Disparities in Police Use of Force During Investigatory Stops: Racial Disparities in Police Use of Force. Law & Society Review, 52(4), 960–993. https://doi.org/10.1111/lasr.12366 Cite
Krieger, N., Chen, J. T., Waterman, P. D., Kiang, M. V., & Feldman, J. (2015). Police Killings and Police Deaths Are Public Health Data and Can Be Counted. PLoS Med, 12(12), e1001915. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001915 Cite
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MacDonald, J. M., Kaminski, R. J., & Smith, M. R. (2009). The Effect of Less-Lethal Weapons on Injuries in Police Use-of-Force Events. American Journal of Public Health, 99(12), 2268–2274. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2009.159616 Cite
Ménard, K. S., & Arter, M. L. (2013). Police officer alcohol use and trauma symptoms: Associations with critical incidents, coping, and social stressors. International Journal of Stress Management, 20(1), 37–56. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031434 Cite
Miller, T. R., Lawrence, B. A., Carlson, N. N., Hendrie, D., Randall, S., Rockett, I. R. H., & Spicer, R. S. (2016). Perils of police action: a cautionary tale from US data sets. Injury Prevention, injuryprev–2016–042023. https://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2016-042023 Cite
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Ritchie, A. J. (2017). Invisible no more: Police violence against Black women and women of color. Beacon Press. Cite
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Zakrison, T. L., Hamel, P. A., & Hwang, S. W. (2004). Homeless people’s trust and interactions with police and paramedics. Journal of Urban Health, 81(4), 596–605. http://www.springerlink.com/index/L13127JL77R57411.pdf Cite
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Race/Ethnicity

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Amnesty International. (2014). On the Streets of America: Human Rights Abuses in Ferguson. http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/on-the-streets-of-america-human-rights-abuses-in-ferguson Cite
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Atiba Goff, P., & Barsamian Kahn, K. (2012). Racial Bias in Policing: Why We Know Less Than We Should. Social Issues and Policy Review, 6(1), 177–210. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-2409.2011.01039.x Cite
Bialik, C. (2016, July 21). Why Are So Many Black Americans Killed By Police? FiveThirtyEight. http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/why-are-so-many-black-americans-killed-by-police/ Cite
Bornstein, A. (2005). Antiterrorist Policing in New York City after 9/11: Comparing Perspectives on a Complex Process. Human Organization, 64(1), 52–61. https://doi.org/10.17730/humo.64.1.mf00296tl98bk2l5 Cite
Brunson, R. K. (2007). “Police Don’t Like Black People”: African-American Young Men’s Accumulated Police Experiences*. Criminology & Public Policy, 6(1), 71–101. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9133.2007.00423.x Cite
Brunson, R. K., & Miller, J. (2006). Young Black Men and Urban Policing in the United States. The British Journal of Criminology, 46(4), 613–640. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azi093 Cite
Brunson, R. K., & Miller, J. (2006). Gender, Race, and Urban Policing: The Experience of African American Youths. Gender & Society, 20(4), 531–552. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243206287727 Cite
Buehler, J. W. (2016). Racial/Ethnic Disparities in the Use of Lethal Force by US Police, 2010–2014. American Journal of Public Health, 107(2), 295–297. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2016.303575 Cite
Bui, Q., & Cox, A. (2016, July 11). Surprising New Evidence Shows Bias in Police Use of Force but Not in Shootings. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/12/upshot/surprising-new-evidence-shows-bias-in-police-use-of-force-but-not-in-shootings.html Cite
Chen, J. N. (2017). #Blacklivesmatter and the State of Asian/America. Journal of Asian American Studies, 20(2), 265–271. https://doi.org/10.1353/jaas.2017.0019 Cite
Collins, S. P. K. (2014, December 15). Why People Of Color Don’t Call For An Ambulance. http://thinkprogress.org/health/2014/12/15/3603690/distrust-police-emergency-care/ Cite
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Demby, G. (2014, October 8). Videos Of Deadly Police Encounters Grab The Media Spotlight, But Why? NPR.Org. http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2014/10/08/354507430/videos-of-deadly-police-encounters-grab-media-spotlight Cite
Eberhardt, J. L., Goff, P. A., Purdie, V. J., & Davies, P. G. (2004). Seeing Black: Race, Crime, and Visual Processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(6), 876–893. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.87.6.876 Cite
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Gilbert, K. L., & Ray, R. (2016). Why Police Kill Black Males with Impunity: Applying Public Health Critical Race Praxis (PHCRP) to Address the Determinants of Policing Behaviors and “Justifiable” Homicides in the USA. Journal of Urban Health, 93(1), 122–140. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-015-0005-x Cite
Gilbert, K. L., Ray, R., Byrd, W. C., Richardson, J., & Johnson, O. (2018). The Matter of Lives Underneath Black Male Skin: Using Theory and Media to Explore the Case of “Justifiable Homicides” for Black Males. In Inequality, Crime, and Health Among African American Males (Vol. 20, pp. 171–183). Emerald Publishing Limited. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0195-744920180000020011 Cite
Glaser, J. (2014). Suspect race: Causes and consequences of racial profiling. Oxford University Press. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=3GjDBAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=%22suspect+race%22+jack+glaser&ots=wIIrrBNU7o&sig=68KlYdcUj2devg7o6cQRV2MDRdE Cite
Goff, P. A., Eberhardt, J. L., Williams, M. J., & Jackson, M. C. (2008). Not yet human: Implicit knowledge, historical dehumanization, and contemporary consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(2), 292–306. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.94.2.292 Cite
Goff, P. A., Lloyd, T., Geller, A., Raphael, S., & Glaser, J. (2016). The Science of Justice: Race, Arrests, and Police Use of Force. http://policingequity.org/research/1687-2/ Cite
Harris, D. A. (2003). The reality of racial disparity in criminal justice: The significance of data collection. Law and Contemporary Problems, 71–98. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20059189 Cite
Hirschman, A. D. (2016, July 11). yes, there is racial “bias” in police shootings. Scatterplot. https://scatter.wordpress.com/2016/07/11/yes-there-is-racial-bias-in-police-shootings/ Cite
Houska, T. (n.d.). One of the racial minorities most likely to be killed by police is also the most overlooked. Quartz. Retrieved July 15, 2016, from http://qz.com/478483/one-of-the-racial-minorities-most-likely-to-be-killed-by-police-is-also-the-most-overlooked/ Cite
Kahn, K. B., Goff, P. A., Lee, J. K., & Motamed, D. (2016). Protecting Whiteness: White Phenotypic Racial Stereotypicality Reduces Police Use of Force. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7(5), 403–411. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550616633505 Cite
Kahn, K. B., Goff, P. A., Lee, J. K., & Motamed, D. (2016). Protecting Whiteness: White Phenotypic Racial Stereotypicality Reduces Police Use of Force. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7(5), 403–411. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550616633505 Cite
Koerth-Baker, M. (2016, December 2). Police Violence Against Native Americans Goes Far Beyond Standing Rock. FiveThirtyEight. https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/police-violence-against-native-americans-goes-far-beyond-standing-rock/ Cite
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Mesic, A., Franklin, L., Cansever, A., Potter, F., Sharma, A., Knopov, A., & Siegel, M. (2018). The Relationship Between Structural Racism and Black-White Disparities in Fatal Police Shootings at the State Level. Journal of the National Medical Association, 110(2), 106–116. Cite
Miller, T. R., Lawrence, B. A., Carlson, N. N., Hendrie, D., Randall, S., Rockett, I. R. H., & Spicer, R. S. (2016). Perils of police action: a cautionary tale from US data sets. Injury Prevention, injuryprev–2016–042023. https://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2016-042023 Cite
Nelson, A. (2016). The Longue Durée of Black Lives Matter. American Journal of Public Health, 106(10), 1734–1737. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2016.303422 Cite
Perry, B. (2009). Impacts of disparate policing in Indian Country. Policing and Society, 19(3), 263–281. https://doi.org/10.1080/10439460902871348 Cite
Ray, R., Marsh, K., & Powelson, C. (2017). Can Cameras Stop the Killings? Racial Differences in Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Body-Worn Cameras in Police Encounters,. Sociological Forum, 32(S1), 1032–1050. https://doi.org/10.1111/socf.12359 Cite
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Ritchie, A. J. (2017). Invisible no more: Police violence against Black women and women of color. Beacon Press. Cite
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Smith, B. W., & Holmes, M. D. (2014). Police Use of Excessive Force in Minority Communities: A Test of the Minority Threat, Place, and Community Accountability Hypotheses. Social Problems, 61(1), 83–104. http://www.thecyberhood.net/documents/papers/Smith2014.pdf Cite
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Washington, 1818 N. Street NW Suite 300, & Skype, D. 20036 202-742-1520 C. with. (n.d.). Emergency room reports reveal racial disparity in injuries caused by police. Sunlight Foundation. Retrieved October 6, 2015, from http://sunlightfoundation.com/blog/2014/09/04/cdc-hospital-reports-reveal-racial-disparity-in-injuries-caused-by-police/ Cite
Weitzer, R. (2000). Racialized Policing: Residents’ Perceptions in Three Neighborhoods. Law & Society Review, 34(1), 129–155. https://doi.org/10.2307/3115118 Cite
Wilder, K. M. (2011). Building a model for policing communities with competing and converging interests [CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK]. http://gradworks.umi.com/34/79/3479039.html Cite
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Tech Interventions

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Bump, P. (2016, July 8). Why the Dallas police had explosives, and how those explosives were fatal. Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/07/08/why-the-dallas-police-had-explosives-and-how-those-explosives-were-fatal/ Cite
Derrick, G. J. (2013). Qualified Immunity and the First Amendment Right to Record Police. Boston University Public Interest Law Journal, 22(2), 243–292. https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/bupi22&i=255 Cite
Fountain, H., & Schmidt, M. S. (2016, July 8). ‘Bomb Robot’ Takes Down Dallas Gunman, but Raises Enforcement Questions. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/09/science/dallas-bomb-robot.html Cite
Jenkins, J. (n.d.). Simulation Technology Trains Police Officers To Face Real Life Situations. NPR.Org. Retrieved September 25, 2015, from http://www.npr.org/2015/09/21/442308400/simulation-technology-trains-police-officers-to-face-real-life-situations Cite
Liz Adetiba Politics Intern, T. H. P., & Editor, A. A. S. H. L. (400 C.E., 53:32). Watching Videos Of Police Brutality Can Traumatize You, Especially If You’re Black. The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/watching-police-brutality-videos_us_577ee9b3e4b0344d514eaa5d Cite
MacDonald, J. M., Kaminski, R. J., & Smith, M. R. (2009). The Effect of Less-Lethal Weapons on Injuries in Police Use-of-Force Events. American Journal of Public Health, 99(12), 2268–2274. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2009.159616 Cite
Ray, R., Marsh, K., & Powelson, C. (2017). Can Cameras Stop the Killings? Racial Differences in Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Body-Worn Cameras in Police Encounters,. Sociological Forum, 32(S1), 1032–1050. https://doi.org/10.1111/socf.12359 Cite
Terrill, W., & Paoline III, E. A. (2012). Conducted Energy Devices (CEDs) and Citizen Injuries: The Shocking Empirical Reality. Justice Quarterly, 29(2), 153–182. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2010.549834 Cite
Washington, 1818 N. Street NW Suite 300, & Skype, D. 20036 202-742-1520 C. with. (n.d.). D.C. debates body-worn cameras for police: A glimpse into many discussions to come. Sunlight Foundation. Retrieved July 23, 2015, from http://sunlightfoundation.com/blog/2015/05/11/d-c-debates-body-worn-cameras-for-police-a-glimpse-into-many-discussions-to-come/ Cite

Trust/fear

View this subcollection at Zotero

Alcindor, Y. (2016, July 9). In the Turmoil Over Race and Policing, Children Pay a Steep Emotional Price. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/10/us/in-the-turmoil-over-race-and-policing-children-pay-a-steep-emotional-price.html Cite
Carr, P. J., Napolitano, L., & Keating, J. (2007). We Never Call the Cops and Here Is Why: A Qualitative Examination of Legal Cynicism in Three Philadelphia Neighborhoods*. Criminology, 45(2), 445–480. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2007.00084.x Cite
Collins, S. P. K. (2014, December 15). Why People Of Color Don’t Call For An Ambulance. http://thinkprogress.org/health/2014/12/15/3603690/distrust-police-emergency-care/ Cite
Gau, J. M., & Brunson, R. K. (2010). Procedural Justice and Order Maintenance Policing: A Study of Inner‐City Young Men’s Perceptions of Police Legitimacy. Justice Quarterly, 27(2), 255–279. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418820902763889 Cite
Kendall, M. (2015, April 10). The police can’t police themselves. And now the public is too scared to cooperate with them. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/04/10/the-police-cant-police-themselves-and-now-the-public-is-too-scared-to-cooperate-with-them/ Cite
Klinger, D. A., & Brunson, R. K. (2009). Police officers’ perceptual distortions during lethal force situations: Informing the reasonableness standard*. Criminology & Public Policy, 8(1), 117–140. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9133.2009.00537.x Cite
Liz Adetiba Politics Intern, T. H. P., & Editor, A. A. S. H. L. (400 C.E., 53:32). Watching Videos Of Police Brutality Can Traumatize You, Especially If You’re Black. The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/watching-police-brutality-videos_us_577ee9b3e4b0344d514eaa5d Cite
Warren, A. M., Sulaiman, A., & Jaafar, N. I. (2014). Social media effects on fostering online civic engagement and building citizen trust and trust in institutions. Government Information Quarterly, 31(2), 291–301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2013.11.007 Cite
Weitzer, R. (2000). Racialized Policing: Residents’ Perceptions in Three Neighborhoods. Law & Society Review, 34(1), 129–155. https://doi.org/10.2307/3115118 Cite
Zakrison, T. L., Hamel, P. A., & Hwang, S. W. (2004). Homeless people’s trust and interactions with police and paramedics. Journal of Urban Health, 81(4), 596–605. http://www.springerlink.com/index/L13127JL77R57411.pdf Cite
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Adams, N. (2014). Deciding Force Project. Deciding Force Project. http://www.decidingforce.org/ Cite
Adams, K., Alpert, G. P., Dunham, R. G., Garner, L. A. G., Henriquez, M. A., Langan, P. A., Maxwell, C. D., & Smith, S. K. (1999). Use of Force By Police: Overview of National and Local Data Series: Research Report. NCJ. http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles1/nij/176330.txt Cite
Alang, S., McAlpine, D., McCreedy, E., & Hardeman, R. (2017). Police Brutality and Black Health: Setting the Agenda for Public Health Scholars. American Journal of Public Health, 107(5), 662–665. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2017.303691 Cite
Alcindor, Y. (2016, July 9). In the Turmoil Over Race and Policing, Children Pay a Steep Emotional Price. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/10/us/in-the-turmoil-over-race-and-policing-children-pay-a-steep-emotional-price.html Cite
Almendrala, A., & Schumaker, E. (2016, July 27). Be Wary Of Studies That Deny Racial Bias In Police Shootings. Huffington Post. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/police-shootings-studies-racial-bias_us_5796f2d8e4b02d5d5ed2b4aa Cite
Alpert, G. P. (2004). Understanding Police Use of Force: Officers, Suspects, and Reciprocity. Cambridge University Press. Cite
Alpert, G. P., & Walker, S. (2000). Police Accountability and Early Warning Systems: Developing Policies and Programs. Justice Research and Policy, 2(2), 59–72. https://doi.org/10.3818/JRP.2.2.2000.59 Cite
Amnesty International. (2014). On the Streets of America: Human Rights Abuses in Ferguson. http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/on-the-streets-of-america-human-rights-abuses-in-ferguson Cite
Amnesty International. (2005). Stonewalled: Police abuse and misconduct against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in the US. Amnesty International Publications New York, NY. Cite
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