Police Use of Force & Access to Police Data

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Police Use of Force, Police Data Transparency (US Focus)

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Citizen Oversight

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Harris, D. A. (2003). The reality of racial disparity in criminal justice: The significance of data collection. Law and Contemporary Problems, 71–98. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20059189 Cite
Walker, S. (2000). Police Accountability: The Role of Citizen Oversight (1 edition). Austarlia ; Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. Cite
NACOLE - The National Association for Civilian Oversight of Law Enforcement. (n.d.). Retrieved July 9, 2015, from https://nacole.org Cite
NACOLE Public Comment for the US Commission on Civil Rights Police Practices and UOF. (n.d.). Retrieved July 9, 2015, from https://nacole.org/wp-content/uploads/NACOLE-Public-Comment-for-the-US-Commission-on-Civil-Rights-Police-Practices-and-UOF-Final.pdf Cite

Consent Decrees/Reform

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Domanick, J. (n.d.). Police Reform’s Best Tool: A Federal Consent Decree. Retrieved August 1, 2015, from http://www.thecrimereport.org/news/articles/2014-07-police-reforms-best-tool-a-federal-consent-decree Cite
Mura, J., & Stolberg, S. G. (2015, July 31). Samuel DuBose’s Death in Cincinnati Points to Off-Campus Power of College Police. The New York Times. Cite
Washington, 1818 N. Street NW Suite 300, & Skype, D. 20036 202-742-1520 C. with. (n.d.). Consent decrees open police data, but for a limited time only. Retrieved October 6, 2015, from http://sunlightfoundation.com/blog/2015/07/23/consent-decrees-open-police-data-but-for-a-limited-time-only/ Cite
American Police Reform and Consent Decrees. (n.d.). Retrieved August 1, 2015, from http://www.truth-out.org/news/item/18455-american-police-reform-and-consent-decrees Cite

Data/Transparency

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Almendrala, A., & Schumaker, E. (2016, July 27). Be Wary Of Studies That Deny Racial Bias In Police Shootings. Huffington Post. Retrieved from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/police-shootings-studies-racial-bias_us_5796f2d8e4b02d5d5ed2b4aa Cite
Amnesty International. (2014). On the Streets of America: Human Rights Abuses in Ferguson. Retrieved from http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/on-the-streets-of-america-human-rights-abuses-in-ferguson Cite
Amnesty International USA. (2014, October 24). Amnesty International Releases New Ferguson Report Documenting Human Rights Abuses. Retrieved October 26, 2014, from http://www.amnestyusa.org/news/press-releases/amnesty-international-releases-new-ferguson-report-documenting-human-rights-abuses Cite
Andrew. (2014, February 16). Government fails to track data about police shootings. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://baystateexaminer.com/government-fails-track-data-police-shootings/ Cite
Annechino, R. (2015). Empowering Community Access to Data on Police Use of Force. In 143rd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition (October 31-November 4, 2015). APHA. Retrieved from https://apha.confex.com/apha/143am/webprogram/Paper330147.html Cite
Atiba Goff, P., & Barsamian Kahn, K. (2012). Racial Bias in Policing: Why We Know Less Than We Should. Social Issues and Policy Review, 6(1), 177–210. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-2409.2011.01039.x Cite
Balko, R. (2012, December 11). Why Are There No Good Data On Police Use Of Force? Retrieved October 26, 2013, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/radley-balko/why-is-there-no-good-data_b_2278013.html Cite
Barry, R. (2014, December 3). Hundreds of Police Killings Are Uncounted in Federal Stats; FBI Data Differs from Local Counts on Justifiable Homicides. The Wall Street Journal Online. Retrieved from http://global.factiva.com/redir/default.aspx?P=sa&an=WSJO000020141203eac3001ur&cat=a&ep=ASE Cite
Barry, R., Jones, C., & Lash, N. (n.d.). WSJ Analysis: Justifiable Homicides by U.S. Law Enforcement. Retrieved December 7, 2014, from http://graphics.wsj.com/justifiable-homicides-by-police Cite
bart.gov. (n.d.). Office of the Independent Police Auditor (OIPA). Retrieved December 5, 2014, from http://www.bart.gov/about/policeauditor Cite
Berzofsky, M., Ewing, G., DeMichele, M., Langton, L., Hyland, S. S., & Davis, E. (2017). Police-Public Contact Survey: Assessment and Recommendations for Producing Trend Estimates after 2011 Questionnaire Redesign. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). Retrieved from https://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5905 Cite
Bialik, C. (n.d.). An Ex-Cop Keeps The Country’s Best Data Set On Police Misconduct. Retrieved August 14, 2015, from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/an-ex-cop-keeps-the-countrys-best-data-set-on-police-misconduct/ Cite
Bialik, C. (2016, July 21). Why Are So Many Black Americans Killed By Police? Retrieved September 22, 2016, from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/why-are-so-many-black-americans-killed-by-police/ Cite
Borunda, D. (2014, March 8). City refuses to release video of fatal El Paso police shooting of bodybuilder Daniel Saenz. Retrieved December 15, 2014, from http://www.elpasotimes.com/news/ci_25300482/city-refuses-release-video-fatal-el-paso-police?source=pkg Cite
Bureau of Justic Statistics. (n.d.). Police-Public Contact Survey (PPCS). Retrieved December 10, 2014, from http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=dcdetail&iid=251 Cite
Burghart, D. B. (n.d.). Fatal Encounters. Retrieved December 5, 2014, from http://www.fatalencounters.org/ Cite
CBS/AP. (2014, December 3). Report: Hundreds of police killings not reported to FBI. Retrieved December 5, 2014, from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/report-hundreds-of-police-killings-not-reported-to-fbi/ Cite
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). WISQARS Nonfatal Injury Reports. Retrieved December 10, 2014, from http://webappa.cdc.gov/sasweb/ncipc/nfirates2001.html Cite
Contorno, S. (n.d.). Are deaths from police shootings the highest in 20 years? Retrieved December 5, 2014, from http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/statements/2014/dec/03/marc-morial/are-deaths-police-shootings-highest-20-years/ Cite
Cranor, L. (2016, April 27). Open Police Data Re-identification Risks | Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved May 28, 2016, from https://www.ftc.gov/news-events/blogs/techftc/2016/04/open-police-data-re-identification-risks Cite
Editorial Board. (2012, December 8). Editorial: Progress on deadly force issues with St. Louis police. Retrieved January 7, 2014, from http://www.stltoday.com/news/opinion/columns/the-platform/editorial-progress-on-deadly-force-issues-with-st-louis-police/article_752cf432-4a5e-5eb5-8184-100ec13783df.html Cite
Fan, M. D. (2012). Panopticism for Police: Structural Reform Bargaining and Police Regulation by Data-Driven Surveillance (SSRN Scholarly Paper No. ID 2020523). Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2020523 Cite
FBI: Uniform Crime Reporting. (n.d.). 2015 LEOKA Data Sources. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from https://ucr.fbi.gov/leoka/2015/resource-pages/methodology_felonious_accidental_-2015 Cite
Fyfe, J. (2002). Too Many Missing Cases: Holes in Our Knowledge About Police Use of Force. Justice Research and Policy, 4, 87–102. https://doi.org/10.3818/JRP.4.1.2002.87 Cite
Gabrielson, R., Jones, R. G., ProPublica, E. S., 10, O., 2014, & A.m, 11:07. (n.d.). Deadly Force, in Black and White. Retrieved October 12, 2014, from http://www.propublica.org/article/deadly-force-in-black-and-white Cite
Geller, W. A., & Toch, H. (1959). Police Violence: Understanding and Controlling Police Abuse of Force. Yale University Press. Cite
Glaser, J. (2014). Suspect race: Causes and consequences of racial profiling. Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=3GjDBAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=%22suspect+race%22+jack+glaser&ots=wIIrrBNU7o&sig=68KlYdcUj2devg7o6cQRV2MDRdE Cite
Harris, D. A. (2003). The reality of racial disparity in criminal justice: The significance of data collection. Law and Contemporary Problems, 71–98. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20059189 Cite
Holloway-Beth, A., Forst, L., Lippert, J., Brandt-Rauf, S., Freels, S., & Friedman, L. (2016). Risk factors associated with legal interventions. Injury Epidemiology, 3. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40621-016-0067-6 Cite
Joseph, G. (n.d.). Crowdsourcing Police Accountability. Retrieved March 16, 2017, from http://www.citylab.com/crime/2016/10/crowdsourcing-police-accountability/504650/ Cite
Kane, R. J. (2007). Collect and Release Data on Coercive Police Actions*. Criminology & Public Policy, 6(4), 773–780. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9133.2007.00485.x Cite
Kellermann, A. L., Bartolomeos, K., Fuqua-Whitley, D., Sampson, T. R., & Parramore, C. S. (2001). Community-level firearm injury surveillance: Local data for local action. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 38(4), 423–429. https://doi.org/10.1067/mem.2001.117273 Cite
Killed by Police Community. (n.d.). Killed By Police. Retrieved December 7, 2014, from https://www.facebook.com/KilledByPolice Cite
Klinger, D. A. (2008). On the Importance of Sound Measures of Forceful Police Actions*. Criminology & Public Policy, 7(4), 605–617. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9133.2008.00529.x Cite
Klinger, D. A. (2012). On the Problems and Promise of Research on Lethal Police Violence A Research Note. Homicide Studies, 16(1), 78–96. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088767911430861 Cite
Koerth-Baker, M. (2016, December 2). Police Violence Against Native Americans Goes Far Beyond Standing Rock. Retrieved September 29, 2019, from https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/police-violence-against-native-americans-goes-far-beyond-standing-rock/ Cite
Lee, H. K. (2014, December 5). Legal fight over Oakland officers who win discipline cases. Retrieved December 7, 2014, from http://www.sfgate.com/crime/article/Legal-fight-over-Oakland-officers-who-overturn-5938289.php Cite
Lewis, R., & Veltman, N. (2014). Lawsuits, Excessive Force, Citizen Complaints — And Still On The Street. Retrieved from http://www.wnyc.org/story/can-the-nypd-spot-the-abusive-cop/?utm_source=sharedUrl&utm_medium=metatag&utm_campaign=sharedUrl Cite
Loftin, C., Wiersema, B., McDowall, D., & Dobrin, A. (2003). Underreporting of Justifiable Homicides Committed by Police Officers in the United States, 1976–1998. American Journal of Public Health, 93(7), 1117–1121. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1447919/ Cite
McCarthy, T. (2015, March 18). The uncounted: why the US can’t keep track of people killed by police. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/mar/18/police-killings-government-data-count Cite
Mumola, C. J. (2007). Arrest-Related Deaths in the United States, 2003-2005 (Special Report). Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/ardus05.pdf Cite
Ortellado, D., & Foundation, S. (2014, September 5). CDC: Hospital data shows racial disparity in injuries caused by police. Retrieved December 9, 2014, from http://www.philly.com/philly/health/CDC_Hospital_data_shows_racial_disparity_in_injuries_caused_by_police.html Cite
Packman, D. (2010, May 2). Another Look at Police Transparency vs Officer Safety. Retrieved April 14, 2014, from http://www.policemisconduct.net/another-look-at-police-transparency-vs-officer-safety/ Cite
PUEBLO. (n.d.). PUEBLO: People United for a Better Life in Oakland. Retrieved July 25, 2014, from http://www.peopleunited.org/ Cite
Ross, D. (n.d.). 5 Ways to Jumpstart the Release of Open Data on Policing. Retrieved July 9, 2015, from http://www.codeforamerica.org/blog/2015/05/17/5-ways-to-jumpstart-the-release-of-open-data-on-policing/ Cite
Sikora, A. G., & Mulvihill, M. (2002). Trends in Mortality Due to Legal Intervention in the United States, 1979 Through 1997. American Journal of Public Health, 92(5), 841–843. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1447171/ Cite
Sinyangwe, S., Elzie, J., & McKesson, D. (n.d.). The National Police Violence Map. Retrieved March 10, 2015, from http://mappingpoliceviolence.org/ Cite
Swaine, J., Laughl, O., & York, J. L. in N. (n.d.). Black Americans killed by police twice as likely to be unarmed as white people. Retrieved June 1, 2015, from http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/jun/01/black-americans-killed-by-police-analysis Cite
Wagner, K. (2014, August 29). We’re Compiling Every Police-Involved Shooting In America. Help Us. Retrieved December 7, 2014, from http://regressing.deadspin.com/were-compiling-every-police-involved-shooting-in-americ-1624180387 Cite
Washington, 1818 N. Street NW Suite 300, & Skype, D. 20036 202-742-1520 C. with. (n.d.). D.C. debates body-worn cameras for police: A glimpse into many discussions to come. Retrieved July 23, 2015, from http://sunlightfoundation.com/blog/2015/05/11/d-c-debates-body-worn-cameras-for-police-a-glimpse-into-many-discussions-to-come/ Cite

Department Assessment

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Associated Press in Cleveland. (2014, December 4). Cleveland police use excessive force far too often, stinging government report finds. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2014/dec/04/cleveland-police-excessive-force-report Cite
Bornstein, A. (2005). Antiterrorist Policing in New York City after 9/11: Comparing Perspectives on a Complex Process. Human Organization, 64(1), 52–61. https://doi.org/10.17730/humo.64.1.mf00296tl98bk2l5 Cite
Goff, P. A., Lloyd, T., Geller, A., Raphael, S., & Glaser, J. (2016). The Science of Justice: Race, Arrests, and Police Use of Force. Retrieved from http://policingequity.org/research/1687-2/ Cite
Smith, M. R., Kaminski, R. J., Alpert, G. P., Fridell, L. A., MacDonald, J., & Kubu, B. (2009). A multi-method evaluation of police use of force outcomes: Final report to the National Institute of Justice. Washington, DC: US Justice Department. Retrieved from http://internationalresponsestocrime.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/86744632/smith%20kaminski%20alpert%20fridell%20macdonald%20and%20kubu%202010%20use%20of%20force%20and%20injury%20study.pdf Cite
Stewart, J. K., Fachner, G., Rodriguez King, D., & Rickman, S. (2012). Collaborative Reform Process: A Review of Officer-Involved Shootings in the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department. Retrieved from http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/pdf/e10129513-Collaborative-Reform-Process_FINAL.pdf Cite
Terrill, W., Paoline, E., & Ingram, J. (2010). Final technical report draft: assessing police use of force policy and outcomes. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from http://scholar.google.com/scholar_url?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ncjrs.gov%2FApp%2FPublications%2Fabstract.aspx%3FID%3D259826&hl=en&sa=T&ct=res&cd=0&ei=vmzRVIyRJNDVqQHciIHgDw&scisig=AAGBfm3fgzyFOEX7j0RIS3wLwlqMcKRppw&nossl=1&ws=1280x663 Cite
WeTheProtesters. (n.d.). #CheckThePolice Rating System. Retrieved May 26, 2015, from http://www.checkthepolice.org/ Cite
EverytownPD.City.Report-2016-07 - EverytownPD.City_.Report-FINAL.pdf. (n.d.). Retrieved July 9, 2016, from http://policingequity.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/EverytownPD.City_.Report-FINAL.pdf Cite

Disability/Mental Illness

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Barry, R. (2014, December 3). Hundreds of Police Killings Are Uncounted in Federal Stats; FBI Data Differs from Local Counts on Justifiable Homicides. The Wall Street Journal Online. Retrieved from http://global.factiva.com/redir/default.aspx?P=sa&an=WSJO000020141203eac3001ur&cat=a&ep=ASE Cite
Borum, R. (2000). Improving high risk encounters between people with mental illness and police. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 28. Retrieved from http://works.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1024&context=randy_borum Cite
Fields, G. (2013, October 22). Lives of Mentally Ill, Police Collide; Law-enforcement professionals and mental-health advocates believe they are seeing an increase in fatal encounters between police and the mentally ill. Wall Street Journal (Online), p. n/a. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1443922845/867225632A0E42A4PQ/1?accountid=14496 Cite
Morabito, M. S., Kerr, A. N., Watson, A., Draine, J., Ottati, V., & Angell, B. (2012). Crisis Intervention Teams and People With Mental Illness Exploring the Factors That Influence the Use of Force. Crime & Delinquency, 58(1), 57–77. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128710372456 Cite
Vargas, T. (2013, March 22). Grand jury rejects criminal charges in death of Robert Saylor, man with Down syndrome. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/no-criminal-charges-in-death-of-robert-saylor-frederick-man-with-down-syndrome/2013/03/22/3a723b6c-932f-11e2-8ea1-956c94b6b5b9_story.html Cite

Drug Policing

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Cooper, H. L. (2015). War on Drugs Policing and Police Brutality. Substance Use & Misuse, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.3109/10826084.2015.1007669 Cite

Early Warning Systems

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Alpert, G. P., & Walker, S. (2000). Police Accountability and Early Warning Systems: Developing Policies and Programs. Justice Research and Policy, 2(2), 59–72. https://doi.org/10.3818/JRP.2.2.2000.59 Cite
Bazley, T. D., Mieczkowski, T., & Lersch, K. M. (2009). Early intervention program criteria: evaluating officer use of force. Justice Quarterly, 26(1), 107–124. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418820801989742 Cite
Shjarback, J. A. (2015). Emerging Early Intervention Systems: An Agency-Specific Pre-Post Comparison of Formal Citizen Complaints of Use of Force. Policing, pav006. Retrieved from http://policing.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/03/04/police.pav006.short Cite
Walker, S. (2003). Early intervention systems for law enforcement agencies: A planning and management guide. US Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/abstractdb/AbstractDBDetails.aspx?id=201245 Cite
Walker, S., Alpert, G. P., & Kenney, D. J. (2000). Early Warning Systems for Police: Concept, History, and Issues. Police Quarterly, 3(2), 132–152. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098611100003002001 Cite
Early Warning Systems: Responding to the Problem Police Officer (RIB) - earlywarn.pdf. (n.d.). Retrieved July 9, 2015, from http://zimmer.csufresno.edu/~haralds/Linkpages/reports/earlywarn.pdf Cite
Lawsuits, Excessive Force, Citizen Complaints — And Still On The Street. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.wnyc.org/story/can-the-nypd-spot-the-abusive-cop/?utm_source=sharedUrl&utm_medium=metatag&utm_campaign=sharedUrl Cite

Factors in Use of Force

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Adams, N. (2014). Deciding Force Project. Retrieved December 15, 2014, from http://www.decidingforce.org/ Cite
Amnesty International. (2005). Stonewalled: Police abuse and misconduct against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in the US. Amnesty International Publications New York, NY. Cite
Amnesty International USA. (2014, October 24). Amnesty International Releases New Ferguson Report Documenting Human Rights Abuses. Retrieved October 26, 2014, from http://www.amnestyusa.org/news/press-releases/amnesty-international-releases-new-ferguson-report-documenting-human-rights-abuses Cite
Bui, Q., & Cox, A. (2016, July 11). Surprising New Evidence Shows Bias in Police Use of Force but Not in Shootings. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/12/upshot/surprising-new-evidence-shows-bias-in-police-use-of-force-but-not-in-shootings.html Cite
Burke, R. J., & Mikkelsen, A. (2005). Burnout, job stress and attitudes towards the use of force by Norwegian police officers. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 28(2), 269–278. https://doi.org/10.1108/13639510510597906 Cite
Chibbaro, Jr., L. (2013, January 11). Probation for D.C. cop in trans shooting case. Retrieved December 7, 2014, from http://www.washingtonblade.com/2013/01/11/probation-for-d-c-cop-in-trans-shooting-case/ Cite
Eberhardt, J. L., Goff, P. A., Purdie, V. J., & Davies, P. G. (2004). Seeing Black: Race, Crime, and Visual Processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(6), 876–893. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.87.6.876 Cite
Fields, G. (2013, October 22). Lives of Mentally Ill, Police Collide; Law-enforcement professionals and mental-health advocates believe they are seeing an increase in fatal encounters between police and the mentally ill. Wall Street Journal (Online), p. n/a. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1443922845/867225632A0E42A4PQ/1?accountid=14496 Cite
Gabrielson, R., Jones, R. G., ProPublica, E. S., 10, O., 2014, & A.m, 11:07. (n.d.). Deadly Force, in Black and White. Retrieved October 12, 2014, from http://www.propublica.org/article/deadly-force-in-black-and-white Cite
Gerstenberger, D., Beatty, K., & Weatherby, G. A. (2014). Factors Influencing Fatal Officer-Involved Shootings. Journal of Law and Criminal Justice, 2(1), 273–298. Retrieved from http://aripd.org/journals/jlcj/Vol_2_No_1_March_2014/13.pdf Cite
Glaser, J. (2014). Suspect race: Causes and consequences of racial profiling. Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=3GjDBAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=%22suspect+race%22+jack+glaser&ots=wIIrrBNU7o&sig=68KlYdcUj2devg7o6cQRV2MDRdE Cite
Goff, P. A., Eberhardt, J. L., Williams, M. J., & Jackson, M. C. (2008). Not yet human: Implicit knowledge, historical dehumanization, and contemporary consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(2), 292–306. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.94.2.292 Cite
Goff, P. A., Lloyd, T., Geller, A., Raphael, S., & Glaser, J. (2016). The Science of Justice: Race, Arrests, and Police Use of Force. Retrieved from http://policingequity.org/research/1687-2/ Cite
Grant, J. M., Mottet, L., Tanis, J. E., Harrison, J., Herman, J., & Keisling, M. (2011). Injustice at every turn: a report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. National Center for Transgender Equality. Cite
Harrison, J., Grant, J., & Herman, J. L. (2012). A Gender Not Listed Here: Genderqueers, Gender Rebels, and OtherWise in the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. LGBTQ Public Policy Journal at the Harvard Kennedy School, 2(1). Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/2zj46213 Cite
Hirschman, A. D. (2016, July 11). yes, there is racial “bias” in police shootings. Retrieved July 11, 2016, from https://scatter.wordpress.com/2016/07/11/yes-there-is-racial-bias-in-police-shootings/ Cite
Holloway-Beth, A., Forst, L., Lippert, J., Brandt-Rauf, S., Freels, S., & Friedman, L. (2016). Risk factors associated with legal interventions. Injury Epidemiology, 3. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40621-016-0067-6 Cite
Ingraham, C. (2015, May 6). These cops are tired of white people getting freaked out by their black neighbors. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2015/05/06/these-cops-are-tired-of-white-people-getting-freaked-out-by-their-black-neighbors/ Cite
Kahn, K. B., Goff, P. A., Lee, J. K., & Motamed, D. (2016). Protecting Whiteness: White Phenotypic Racial Stereotypicality Reduces Police Use of Force. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7(5), 403–411. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550616633505 Cite
Klinger, D. A., & Brunson, R. K. (2009). Police officers’ perceptual distortions during lethal force situations: Informing the reasonableness standard*. Criminology & Public Policy, 8(1), 117–140. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9133.2009.00537.x Cite
Kop, N., Euwema, M., & Schaufeli, W. (1999). Burnout, job stress and violent behaviour among Dutch police officers. Work & Stress, 13(4), 326–340. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678379950019789 Cite
National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. (2014). Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and HIV-Affected Hate Violence in 2013. Retrieved from http://www.avp.org/storage/documents/2013_ncavp_hvreport_final.pdf Cite
Smith, B. W., & Holmes, M. D. (2014). Police Use of Excessive Force in Minority Communities: A Test of the Minority Threat, Place, and Community Accountability Hypotheses. Social Problems, 61(1), 83–104. Retrieved from http://www.thecyberhood.net/documents/papers/Smith2014.pdf Cite
Smith, M. R., Kaminski, R. J., Alpert, G. P., Fridell, L. A., MacDonald, J., & Kubu, B. (2009). A multi-method evaluation of police use of force outcomes: Final report to the National Institute of Justice. Washington, DC: US Justice Department. Retrieved from http://internationalresponsestocrime.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/86744632/smith%20kaminski%20alpert%20fridell%20macdonald%20and%20kubu%202010%20use%20of%20force%20and%20injury%20study.pdf Cite
TAKAGI, P. (1974). A Garrison State In “Democratic” Society. Crime and Social Justice, (1), 27–33. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/29765885 Cite
Terrill, W., & Reisig, M. D. (2003). Neighborhood Context and Police Use of Force. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40(3), 291–321. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427803253800 Cite
Wolff, K. B., & Cokely, C. L. (2007). “To Protect and to Serve?”: An Exploration of Police Conduct in Relation to the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Community. Sexuality and Culture, 11(2), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12119-007-9000-z Cite
Zakrison, T. L., Hamel, P. A., & Hwang, S. W. (2004). Homeless people’s trust and interactions with police and paramedics. Journal of Urban Health, 81(4), 596–605. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/index/L13127JL77R57411.pdf Cite

Force Continuum

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Adams, K., Alpert, G. P., Dunham, R. G., Garner, L. A. G., Henriquez, M. A., Langan, P. A., … Smith, S. K. (1999). Use of Force By Police: Overview of National and Local Data Series: Research Report. NCJ. Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles1/nij/176330.txt Cite
Alpert, G. P. (2004). Understanding Police Use of Force: Officers, Suspects, and Reciprocity. Cambridge University Press. Cite
Goff, P. A., Lloyd, T., Geller, A., Raphael, S., & Glaser, J. (2016). The Science of Justice: Race, Arrests, and Police Use of Force. Retrieved from http://policingequity.org/research/1687-2/ Cite
Hickman, M. J., Atherley, L. T., Lowery, P. G., & Alpert, G. P. (2015). Reliability of the Force Factor Method in Police Use-of-Force Research. Police Quarterly, 18(4), 368–396. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098611115586175 Cite
MacDonald, J. M., Kaminski, R. J., & Smith, M. R. (2009). The Effect of Less-Lethal Weapons on Injuries in Police Use-of-Force Events. American Journal of Public Health, 99(12), 2268–2274. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2009.159616 Cite
Matrofski, S. D., Parks, R. B., Worden, R. E., & Reiss, A. J. (n.d.). Project on Policing Neighborhoods in Indianapolis, Indiana, and St. Petersburg, Florida, 1996-1997. Retrieved February 4, 2015, from http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ICPSR/studies/03160 Cite
Michael R. Smith, Robert J. Kaminski, Jeffrey Rojek, Geoffrey P. Alpert, & Jason Mathis. (2007). The impact of conducted energy devices and other types of force and resistance on officer and suspect injuries. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 30(3), 423–446. https://doi.org/10.1108/13639510710778822 Cite
Smith, M. R., Kaminski, R. J., Alpert, G. P., Fridell, L. A., MacDonald, J., & Kubu, B. (2009). A multi-method evaluation of police use of force outcomes: Final report to the National Institute of Justice. Washington, DC: US Justice Department. Retrieved from http://internationalresponsestocrime.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/86744632/smith%20kaminski%20alpert%20fridell%20macdonald%20and%20kubu%202010%20use%20of%20force%20and%20injury%20study.pdf Cite
Terrill, W., & Paoline III, E. A. (2012). Conducted Energy Devices (CEDs) and Citizen Injuries: The Shocking Empirical Reality. Justice Quarterly, 29(2), 153–182. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2010.549834 Cite
Terrill, W., Paoline, E., & Ingram, J. (2010). Final technical report draft: assessing police use of force policy and outcomes. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from http://scholar.google.com/scholar_url?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ncjrs.gov%2FApp%2FPublications%2Fabstract.aspx%3FID%3D259826&hl=en&sa=T&ct=res&cd=0&ei=vmzRVIyRJNDVqQHciIHgDw&scisig=AAGBfm3fgzyFOEX7j0RIS3wLwlqMcKRppw&nossl=1&ws=1280x663 Cite
The (Original) Use of Force Model. (n.d.). Retrieved August 22, 2015, from http://www.pss.cc/uofm.htm Cite

Gender

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Bazley, T. D., Lersch, K. M., & Mieczkowski, T. (2007). Officer force versus suspect resistance: A gendered analysis of patrol officers in an urban police department. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35(2), 183–192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2007.01.005 Cite
Chibbaro, Jr., L. (2013, January 11). Probation for D.C. cop in trans shooting case. Retrieved December 7, 2014, from http://www.washingtonblade.com/2013/01/11/probation-for-d-c-cop-in-trans-shooting-case/ Cite
Crenshaw, K., Ritchie, A. J., Anspach, R., Gilmer, R., & Harris, L. (2015). Say her name: Resisting police brutality against black women. African American Policy Forum, Center for Intersectionality and Social Policy Studies at Columbia Law School. Cite
Danielle. (2014, December 6). Know these names? Here’s a list of black women murdered by police. #BlackLivesMatter pic.twitter.com/ZTZpuvTs8Z [microblog]. Retrieved December 6, 2014, from https://twitter.com/daneyvilla/status/541084913924337665 Cite
Eberhardt, J. L., Goff, P. A., Purdie, V. J., & Davies, P. G. (2004). Seeing Black: Race, Crime, and Visual Processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(6), 876–893. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.87.6.876 Cite
Gabrielson, R., Jones, R. G., ProPublica, E. S., 10, O., 2014, & A.m, 11:07. (n.d.). Deadly Force, in Black and White. Retrieved October 12, 2014, from http://www.propublica.org/article/deadly-force-in-black-and-white Cite
Grant, J. M., Mottet, L., Tanis, J. E., Harrison, J., Herman, J., & Keisling, M. (2011). Injustice at every turn: a report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. National Center for Transgender Equality. Cite
Harrison, J., Grant, J., & Herman, J. L. (2012). A Gender Not Listed Here: Genderqueers, Gender Rebels, and OtherWise in the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. LGBTQ Public Policy Journal at the Harvard Kennedy School, 2(1). Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/2zj46213 Cite
Hoffman, P. B., & Hickey, E. R. (2005). Use of force by female police officers. Journal of Criminal Justice, 33(2), 145–151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2004.12.006 Cite
National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. (2014). Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and HIV-Affected Hate Violence in 2013. Retrieved from http://www.avp.org/storage/documents/2013_ncavp_hvreport_final.pdf Cite
Ritchie, A. J. (2017). Invisible no more: Police violence against Black women and women of color. Beacon Press. Cite
#SayHerName Brief. (n.d.). Retrieved September 29, 2019, from http://aapf.org/sayhernamereport Cite

Law and Policy

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Amnesty International. (2014). On the Streets of America: Human Rights Abuses in Ferguson. Retrieved from http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/on-the-streets-of-america-human-rights-abuses-in-ferguson Cite
Amnesty International USA. (2014, October 24). Amnesty International Releases New Ferguson Report Documenting Human Rights Abuses. Retrieved October 26, 2014, from http://www.amnestyusa.org/news/press-releases/amnesty-international-releases-new-ferguson-report-documenting-human-rights-abuses Cite
Associated Press in Cleveland. (2014, December 4). Cleveland police use excessive force far too often, stinging government report finds. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2014/dec/04/cleveland-police-excessive-force-report Cite
California Penal Code. (n.d.). California Penal Code Section 832.7 - California Attorney Resources - California Laws. Retrieved July 25, 2014, from http://law.onecle.com/california/penal/832.7.html Cite
Chemerinsky, E. (2014, August 26). How the Supreme Court Protects Bad Cops. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/27/opinion/how-the-supreme-court-protects-bad-cops.html Cite
Connolly, M. (2014, December 13). Congress Just Passed a Bill Addressing Police Killings While No One Was Looking. Retrieved December 16, 2014, from http://mic.com/articles/106392/congress-just-passed-a-bill-addressing-police-killings-while-no-one-was-looking Cite
Epstein, L. M., & Goff, P. A. (2011). Safety or Liberty?: The Bogus Trade-Off of Cross-Deputization Policy. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 11(1), 314–324. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-2415.2011.01246.x Cite
Garcia, A. (2014, December 6). No Charges For Cop Who Broke Face Of Handcuffed Woman In Patrol Car. Retrieved December 16, 2014, from http://talkingpointsmemo.com/livewire/cop-punched-handcuffed-woman-no-indictment Cite
Goff, P. A., Epstein, L. M., & Reddy, K. S. (2013). Crossing the line of legitimacy: The impact of cross-deputization policy on crime reporting. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 19(2), 250–258. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0030123 Cite
Halsne, C. (n.d.). Denver Police accused of using excessive force, illegal search. Retrieved December 17, 2014, from http://kdvr.com/2014/11/24/denver-police-accused-of-excessive-force-illegal-search/ Cite
Hudson, R. (2014, December 6). Being a cop showed me just how racist and violent the police are. There’s only one fix. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2014/12/06/i-was-a-st-louis-cop-my-peers-were-racist-and-violent-and-theres-only-one-fix/ Cite
Klinger, D. A. (2012). On the Problems and Promise of Research on Lethal Police Violence A Research Note. Homicide Studies, 16(1), 78–96. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088767911430861 Cite
Lee, H. K. (2014, December 5). Legal fight over Oakland officers who win discipline cases. Retrieved December 7, 2014, from http://www.sfgate.com/crime/article/Legal-fight-over-Oakland-officers-who-overturn-5938289.php Cite
Lewis, R., & Veltman, N. (2014). Lawsuits, Excessive Force, Citizen Complaints — And Still On The Street. Retrieved from http://www.wnyc.org/story/can-the-nypd-spot-the-abusive-cop/?utm_source=sharedUrl&utm_medium=metatag&utm_campaign=sharedUrl Cite
Palazzolo, J. (2014, December 3). A Better Way To Investigate Police Killings? Retrieved December 7, 2014, from http://blogs.wsj.com/law/2014/12/03/a-better-way-to-investigate-police-shootings/?mod=e2tw Cite
PolicyLink. (n.d.). Practices to Minimize Use of Force. Retrieved December 10, 2014, from http://www.policylink.org/book/export/html/9031 Cite
Taub, A., & Posner, J. (2014). Why it’s so rare for police to be prosecuted for killing civilians, explained in 2 minutes. Vox. Retrieved from http://www.vox.com/2014/11/25/7279445/police-killing-civilians-law Cite
Walker, S. (2003). New Paradigm of Police Accountability: The US Justice Department Pattern or Practice Suits in Context, The. . . Louis U. Pub. L. Rev., 22, 3. Retrieved from http://heinonlinebackup.com/hol-cgi-bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/stlpl22§ion=7 Cite
Walker, S. (2012). Institutionalizing police accountability reforms: The problem of making police reforms endure. . . Louis U. Pub. L. Rev., 32, 57. Retrieved from http://heinonlinebackup.com/hol-cgi-bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/stlpl32§ion=8 Cite
Wilder, K. M. (2011). Building a model for policing communities with competing and converging interests. CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK. Retrieved from http://gradworks.umi.com/34/79/3479039.html Cite
Wing, N. (2014, December 3). A Grand Jury Did Indict One Person Involved In Eric Garner’s Killing -- The Man Who Filmed It. Retrieved July 16, 2015, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/12/03/ramsey-orta-indictment-eric-garner_n_6264746.html Cite
Winston, A. (2011, August 17). Deadly Secrets: How California Law Shields Oakland Police Violence. Retrieved January 7, 2014, from http://colorlines.com/archives/2011/08/deadly_secrets_how_california_law_has_shielded_oakland_police_violence.html Cite
Deadly Force: Police Use of Lethal Force In The United States. (n.d.). Retrieved July 8, 2015, from http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/deadly-force-police-use-of-lethal-force-in-the-united-states Cite
Graham v. Connor. (n.d.). Retrieved August 22, 2015, from http://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-supreme-court/490/386.html Cite
Robinson v. Solano County. (n.d.). Retrieved August 22, 2015, from http://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-9th-circuit/1019258.html Cite
Police Disciplinary Records Dating To 1967 Must Be Made Public, Court Rules. (n.d.). Retrieved July 9, 2016, from https://www.dnainfo.com/chicago/20160708/bronzeville/police-disciplinary-records-dating-back-1967-must-be-made-public-judge Cite

LGBTQ+

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Amnesty International. (2005). Stonewalled: Police abuse and misconduct against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in the US. Amnesty International Publications New York, NY. Cite
Chibbaro, Jr., L. (2013, January 11). Probation for D.C. cop in trans shooting case. Retrieved December 7, 2014, from http://www.washingtonblade.com/2013/01/11/probation-for-d-c-cop-in-trans-shooting-case/ Cite
Grant, J. M., Mottet, L., Tanis, J. E., Harrison, J., Herman, J., & Keisling, M. (2011). Injustice at every turn: a report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. National Center for Transgender Equality. Cite
Harrison, J., Grant, J., & Herman, J. L. (2012). A Gender Not Listed Here: Genderqueers, Gender Rebels, and OtherWise in the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. LGBTQ Public Policy Journal at the Harvard Kennedy School, 2(1). Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/2zj46213 Cite
National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. (2014). Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and HIV-Affected Hate Violence in 2013. Retrieved from http://www.avp.org/storage/documents/2013_ncavp_hvreport_final.pdf Cite
Wolff, K. B., & Cokely, C. L. (2007). “To Protect and to Serve?”: An Exploration of Police Conduct in Relation to the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Community. Sexuality and Culture, 11(2), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12119-007-9000-z Cite

Neighborhood

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Terrill, W., & Reisig, M. D. (2003). Neighborhood Context and Police Use of Force. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40(3), 291–321. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427803253800 Cite

Oakland/California Specific
(not updated)

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Antony, M. G., & Thomas, R. J. (2010). ‘This is citizen journalism at its finest’: YouTube and the public sphere in the Oscar Grant shooting incident. New Media & Society, 12(8), 1280–1296. Retrieved from http://nms.sagepub.com/content/12/8/1280.short Cite
bart.gov. (n.d.). Office of the Independent Police Auditor (OIPA). Retrieved December 5, 2014, from http://www.bart.gov/about/policeauditor Cite
California Department of Public Health. (n.d.). California’s Electronic Violent Death Reporting System (CalEVDRS). Retrieved June 12, 2014, from http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/Pages/CalEVDRS.aspx Cite
California Penal Code. (n.d.). California Penal Code Section 832.7 - California Attorney Resources - California Laws. Retrieved July 25, 2014, from http://law.onecle.com/california/penal/832.7.html Cite
Code for America 2013 Fellows. (n.d.). RecordTrac. Retrieved July 27, 2014, from http://records.oaklandnet.com/ Cite
Egelko, B. (2013, August 7). Blame in Oscar Grant BART death may shift. Retrieved January 10, 2015, from http://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/Blame-in-Oscar-Grant-BART-death-may-shift-4713100.php Cite
Elinson, Z., & Walter, S. (2011, July 16). In San Francisco, Latest BART Shooting Prompts New Discussion of Reforms. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/17/us/17bcbart.html Cite
Erickson, B. (2014, August 21). Blue on black violence and original crime: a view from Oakland, California. Retrieved September 23, 2014, from http://anthropoliteia.net/2014/08/21/blue-on-black-violence-and-original-crime-a-view-from-oakland-california/ Cite
Hyatt, A. (2014, April 2). Oakland’s Most Decorated Officers Responsible for High Number of Brutality Lawsuits, Shootings - Oakland Police Beat. Retrieved January 9, 2015, from http://oaklandpolicebeat.com/2014/04/oaklands-most-decorated-officers-responsible-for-high-number-of-brutality-lawsuits-shootings/ Cite
Lee, H. K. (2014, December 5). Legal fight over Oakland officers who win discipline cases. Retrieved December 7, 2014, from http://www.sfgate.com/crime/article/Legal-fight-over-Oakland-officers-who-overturn-5938289.php Cite
Winston, A. (2011, August 17). Deadly Secrets: How California Law Shields Oakland Police Violence. Retrieved January 7, 2014, from http://colorlines.com/archives/2011/08/deadly_secrets_how_california_law_has_shielded_oakland_police_violence.html Cite
Oakland Police Beat. (n.d.). Retrieved January 9, 2015, from http://oaklandpolicebeat.com/ Cite
How deeply rooted biases affect how police enforce the law. (n.d.). Retrieved July 9, 2015, from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/deeply-rooted-biases-affect-police-enforce-law/ Cite
Policy and Reports | bart.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved August 22, 2015, from http://www.bart.gov/about/police/reports Cite
Robinson v. Solano County. (n.d.). Retrieved August 22, 2015, from http://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-9th-circuit/1019258.html Cite
Public can now see California data on arrests and deaths in police custody. (n.d.). Retrieved October 7, 2015, from http://www.latimes.com/local/crime/la-me-police-transparency-20150903-story.html Cite

Protest

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Adams, N. (2014). Deciding Force Project. Retrieved December 15, 2014, from http://www.decidingforce.org/ Cite
Amnesty International. (2014). On the Streets of America: Human Rights Abuses in Ferguson. Retrieved from http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/on-the-streets-of-america-human-rights-abuses-in-ferguson Cite
Davenport, C., Soule, S. A., & II, D. A. A. (2011). Protesting While Black? The Differential Policing of American Activism, 1960 to 1990. American Sociological Review, 76(1), 152–178. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25782184 Cite
Geron, S. M. (2014). 21st Century strategies for policing protest: what major cities’ responses to the Occupy Movement tell US about the future of police response to public protest. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School. Retrieved from http://calhoun.nps.edu/public/handle/10945/41382 Cite

Public Health Perspective

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Bor, J., Venkataramani, A. S., Williams, D. R., & Tsai, A. C. (2018). Police killings and their spillover effects on the mental health of black Americans: a population-based, quasi-experimental study. The Lancet, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31130-9 Cite
Boyd, R. (n.d.). Police Violence and Public Health | KQED. Retrieved May 12, 2015, from http://www.kqed.org/a/perspectives/R201504290643 Cite
Burke, R. J., & Mikkelsen, A. (2005). Burnout, job stress and attitudes towards the use of force by Norwegian police officers. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 28(2), 269–278. https://doi.org/10.1108/13639510510597906 Cite
California Department of Public Health. (n.d.). California’s Electronic Violent Death Reporting System (CalEVDRS). Retrieved June 12, 2014, from http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/Pages/CalEVDRS.aspx Cite
CDC Violence Prevention|Injury Center. (n.d.). The Public Health Approach to Violence Prevention. Retrieved September 12, 2018, from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/overview/publichealthapproach.html Cite
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). WISQARS Nonfatal Injury Reports. Retrieved December 10, 2014, from http://webappa.cdc.gov/sasweb/ncipc/nfirates2001.html Cite
Clair, M. E. (2006). The relationship between critical incidents, hostility and PTSD symptoms in police officers. Drexel University. Retrieved from https://idea.library.drexel.edu/islandora/object/idea%3A1118/datastream/OBJ/download/The_relationship_between_critical_incidents__hostility_and_PTSD_symptoms_in_police_officers.pdf Cite
Collins, S. P. K. (2014, December 15). Why People Of Color Don’t Call For An Ambulance. Retrieved December 17, 2014, from http://thinkprogress.org/health/2014/12/15/3603690/distrust-police-emergency-care/ Cite
Cooper, H., Moore, L., Gruskin, S., & Krieger, N. (2004). Characterizing Perceived Police Violence: Implications for Public Health. American Journal of Public Health, 94(7), 1109–1118. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448406/ Cite
DeVylder, J. E., Oh, H. Y., Nam, B., Sharpe, T. L., Lehmann, M., & Link, B. G. (2017). Prevalence, demographic variation and psychological correlates of exposure to police victimisation in four US cities. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 26(5), 466–477. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2045796016000810 Cite
Fields, G. (2013, October 22). Lives of Mentally Ill, Police Collide; Law-enforcement professionals and mental-health advocates believe they are seeing an increase in fatal encounters between police and the mentally ill. Wall Street Journal (Online), p. n/a. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1443922845/867225632A0E42A4PQ/1?accountid=14496 Cite
Gomez, M. B. (2016). Policing, Community Fragmentation, and Public Health: Observations from Baltimore. Journal of Urban Health, 93(1), 154–167. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-015-0022-9 Cite
Gray, R. M., Green, R., Bryant, J., Rance, J., & MacLean, S. (2017). How ‘Vulnerable’ young people describe their interactions with police: building positive pathways to drug diversion and treatment in Sydney and Melbourne, Australia. Police Practice and Research, 0(0), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/15614263.2017.1347787 Cite
Hutson, H. R., Anglin, D., Rice, P., Kyriacou, D. N., Guirguis, M., & Strote, J. (2009). Excessive use of force by police: a survey of academic emergency physicians. Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ, 26(1), 20–22. https://doi.org/10.1136/emj.2007.053348 Cite
Komarovskaya, I., Maguen, S., McCaslin, S. E., Metzler, T. J., Madan, A., Brown, A. D., … Marmar, C. R. (2011). The impact of killing and injuring others on mental health symptoms among police officers. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45(10), 1332–1336. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2011.05.004 Cite
Kop, N., Euwema, M., & Schaufeli, W. (1999). Burnout, job stress and violent behaviour among Dutch police officers. Work & Stress, 13(4), 326–340. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678379950019789 Cite
Krieger, N., Chen, J. T., Waterman, P. D., Kiang, M. V., & Feldman, J. (2015). Police Killings and Police Deaths Are Public Health Data and Can Be Counted. PLoS Med, 12(12), e1001915. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001915 Cite
Lockhart, P. R. (2019, August 14). Why police violence needs to be treated as a public health issue. Retrieved August 31, 2019, from https://www.vox.com/identities/2019/8/14/20803872/police-violence-mortality-public-health-black-men-rutgers Cite
MacDonald, J. M., Kaminski, R. J., & Smith, M. R. (2009). The Effect of Less-Lethal Weapons on Injuries in Police Use-of-Force Events. American Journal of Public Health, 99(12), 2268–2274. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2009.159616 Cite
Ménard, K. S., & Arter, M. L. (2013). Police officer alcohol use and trauma symptoms: Associations with critical incidents, coping, and social stressors. International Journal of Stress Management, 20(1), 37–56. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031434 Cite
Miller, T. R., Lawrence, B. A., Carlson, N. N., Hendrie, D., Randall, S., Rockett, I. R. H., & Spicer, R. S. (2016). Perils of police action: a cautionary tale from US data sets. Injury Prevention, injuryprev-2016-042023. https://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2016-042023 Cite
Mumola, C. J. (2007). Arrest-Related Deaths in the United States, 2003-2005 (Special Report). Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/ardus05.pdf Cite
Nelson, A. (2016). The Longue Durée of Black Lives Matter. American Journal of Public Health, 106(10), 1734–1737. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2016.303422 Cite
Oh, H., DeVylder, J., & Hunt, G. (2017). Effect of Police Training and Accountability on the Mental Health of African American Adults. American Journal of Public Health, 107(10), 1588–1590. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2017.304012 Cite
Ortellado, D., & Foundation, S. (2014, September 5). CDC: Hospital data shows racial disparity in injuries caused by police. Retrieved December 9, 2014, from http://www.philly.com/philly/health/CDC_Hospital_data_shows_racial_disparity_in_injuries_caused_by_police.html Cite
RIchardson, Jr., J. B., Vil, C. S., & Cooper, C. (2015). Who Shot Ya? How Emergency Departments Can Collect Reliable Police Shooting Data. Journal of Urban Health, 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-015-0008-7 Cite
Stavely, Z. (n.d.). Violence Causes Ripple Effects for Thousands of Oakland Students. Retrieved May 12, 2015, from http://ww2.kqed.org/news/2015/04/29/violence-causes-ripple-effects-for-thousands-of-oakland-students Cite
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Zakrison, T. L., Hamel, P. A., & Hwang, S. W. (2004). Homeless people’s trust and interactions with police and paramedics. Journal of Urban Health, 81(4), 596–605. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/index/L13127JL77R57411.pdf Cite
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Race/Ethnicity

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Amnesty International. (2014). On the Streets of America: Human Rights Abuses in Ferguson. Retrieved from http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/on-the-streets-of-america-human-rights-abuses-in-ferguson Cite
Antonovics, K., & Knight, B. G. (2009). A new look at racial profiling: Evidence from the Boston Police Department. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 91(1), 163–177. Cite
Atiba Goff, P., & Barsamian Kahn, K. (2012). Racial Bias in Policing: Why We Know Less Than We Should. Social Issues and Policy Review, 6(1), 177–210. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-2409.2011.01039.x Cite
Bialik, C. (2016, July 21). Why Are So Many Black Americans Killed By Police? Retrieved September 22, 2016, from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/why-are-so-many-black-americans-killed-by-police/ Cite
Bornstein, A. (2005). Antiterrorist Policing in New York City after 9/11: Comparing Perspectives on a Complex Process. Human Organization, 64(1), 52–61. https://doi.org/10.17730/humo.64.1.mf00296tl98bk2l5 Cite
Buehler, J. W. (2016). Racial/Ethnic Disparities in the Use of Lethal Force by US Police, 2010–2014. American Journal of Public Health, 107(2), 295–297. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2016.303575 Cite
Bui, Q., & Cox, A. (2016, July 11). Surprising New Evidence Shows Bias in Police Use of Force but Not in Shootings. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/12/upshot/surprising-new-evidence-shows-bias-in-police-use-of-force-but-not-in-shootings.html Cite
Chen, J. N. (2017). #Blacklivesmatter and the State of Asian/America. Journal of Asian American Studies, 20(2), 265–271. https://doi.org/10.1353/jaas.2017.0019 Cite
Collins, S. P. K. (2014, December 15). Why People Of Color Don’t Call For An Ambulance. Retrieved December 17, 2014, from http://thinkprogress.org/health/2014/12/15/3603690/distrust-police-emergency-care/ Cite
Crenshaw, K., Ritchie, A. J., Anspach, R., Gilmer, R., & Harris, L. (2015). Say her name: Resisting police brutality against black women. African American Policy Forum, Center for Intersectionality and Social Policy Studies at Columbia Law School. Cite
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Demby, G. (2014, October 8). Videos Of Deadly Police Encounters Grab The Media Spotlight, But Why? Retrieved October 9, 2014, from http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2014/10/08/354507430/videos-of-deadly-police-encounters-grab-media-spotlight Cite
Eberhardt, J. L., Goff, P. A., Purdie, V. J., & Davies, P. G. (2004). Seeing Black: Race, Crime, and Visual Processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(6), 876–893. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.87.6.876 Cite
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Glaser, J. (2014). Suspect race: Causes and consequences of racial profiling. Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=3GjDBAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=%22suspect+race%22+jack+glaser&ots=wIIrrBNU7o&sig=68KlYdcUj2devg7o6cQRV2MDRdE Cite
Goff, P. A., Eberhardt, J. L., Williams, M. J., & Jackson, M. C. (2008). Not yet human: Implicit knowledge, historical dehumanization, and contemporary consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(2), 292–306. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.94.2.292 Cite
Goff, P. A., Lloyd, T., Geller, A., Raphael, S., & Glaser, J. (2016). The Science of Justice: Race, Arrests, and Police Use of Force. Retrieved from http://policingequity.org/research/1687-2/ Cite
Harris, D. A. (2003). The reality of racial disparity in criminal justice: The significance of data collection. Law and Contemporary Problems, 71–98. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20059189 Cite
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Houska, T. (n.d.). One of the racial minorities most likely to be killed by police is also the most overlooked. Retrieved July 15, 2016, from http://qz.com/478483/one-of-the-racial-minorities-most-likely-to-be-killed-by-police-is-also-the-most-overlooked/ Cite
Kahn, K. B., Goff, P. A., Lee, J. K., & Motamed, D. (2016). Protecting Whiteness: White Phenotypic Racial Stereotypicality Reduces Police Use of Force. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7(5), 403–411. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550616633505 Cite
Kahn, K. B., Goff, P. A., Lee, J. K., & Motamed, D. (2016). Protecting Whiteness: White Phenotypic Racial Stereotypicality Reduces Police Use of Force. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7(5), 403–411. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550616633505 Cite
Koerth-Baker, M. (2016, December 2). Police Violence Against Native Americans Goes Far Beyond Standing Rock. Retrieved September 29, 2019, from https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/police-violence-against-native-americans-goes-far-beyond-standing-rock/ Cite
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Miller, T. R., Lawrence, B. A., Carlson, N. N., Hendrie, D., Randall, S., Rockett, I. R. H., & Spicer, R. S. (2016). Perils of police action: a cautionary tale from US data sets. Injury Prevention, injuryprev-2016-042023. https://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2016-042023 Cite
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Weitzer, R. (2000). Racialized Policing: Residents’ Perceptions in Three Neighborhoods. Law & Society Review, 34(1), 129–155. https://doi.org/10.2307/3115118 Cite
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Tech Interventions

View this subcollection at Zotero

Bump, P. (2016, July 8). Why the Dallas police had explosives, and how those explosives were fatal. Retrieved July 10, 2016, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/07/08/why-the-dallas-police-had-explosives-and-how-those-explosives-were-fatal/ Cite
Fountain, H., & Schmidt, M. S. (2016, July 8). ‘Bomb Robot’ Takes Down Dallas Gunman, but Raises Enforcement Questions. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/09/science/dallas-bomb-robot.html Cite
Jenkins, J. (n.d.). Simulation Technology Trains Police Officers To Face Real Life Situations. Retrieved September 25, 2015, from http://www.npr.org/2015/09/21/442308400/simulation-technology-trains-police-officers-to-face-real-life-situations Cite
Liz Adetiba Politics Intern, T. H. P., & Editor, A. A. S. H. L. (400AD, 53:32). Watching Videos Of Police Brutality Can Traumatize You, Especially If You’re Black. Retrieved July 11, 2016, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/watching-police-brutality-videos_us_577ee9b3e4b0344d514eaa5d Cite
MacDonald, J. M., Kaminski, R. J., & Smith, M. R. (2009). The Effect of Less-Lethal Weapons on Injuries in Police Use-of-Force Events. American Journal of Public Health, 99(12), 2268–2274. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2009.159616 Cite
Terrill, W., & Paoline III, E. A. (2012). Conducted Energy Devices (CEDs) and Citizen Injuries: The Shocking Empirical Reality. Justice Quarterly, 29(2), 153–182. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2010.549834 Cite
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Trust/fear

View this subcollection at Zotero

Alcindor, Y. (2016, July 9). In the Turmoil Over Race and Policing, Children Pay a Steep Emotional Price. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/10/us/in-the-turmoil-over-race-and-policing-children-pay-a-steep-emotional-price.html Cite
Collins, S. P. K. (2014, December 15). Why People Of Color Don’t Call For An Ambulance. Retrieved December 17, 2014, from http://thinkprogress.org/health/2014/12/15/3603690/distrust-police-emergency-care/ Cite
Gau, J. M., & Brunson, R. K. (2010). Procedural Justice and Order Maintenance Policing: A Study of Inner‐City Young Men’s Perceptions of Police Legitimacy. Justice Quarterly, 27(2), 255–279. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418820902763889 Cite
Kendall, M. (2015, April 10). The police can’t police themselves. And now the public is too scared to cooperate with them. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/04/10/the-police-cant-police-themselves-and-now-the-public-is-too-scared-to-cooperate-with-them/ Cite
Klinger, D. A., & Brunson, R. K. (2009). Police officers’ perceptual distortions during lethal force situations: Informing the reasonableness standard*. Criminology & Public Policy, 8(1), 117–140. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9133.2009.00537.x Cite
Liz Adetiba Politics Intern, T. H. P., & Editor, A. A. S. H. L. (400AD, 53:32). Watching Videos Of Police Brutality Can Traumatize You, Especially If You’re Black. Retrieved July 11, 2016, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/watching-police-brutality-videos_us_577ee9b3e4b0344d514eaa5d Cite
Warren, A. M., Sulaiman, A., & Jaafar, N. I. (2014). Social media effects on fostering online civic engagement and building citizen trust and trust in institutions. Government Information Quarterly, 31(2), 291–301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2013.11.007 Cite
Weitzer, R. (2000). Racialized Policing: Residents’ Perceptions in Three Neighborhoods. Law & Society Review, 34(1), 129–155. https://doi.org/10.2307/3115118 Cite
Zakrison, T. L., Hamel, P. A., & Hwang, S. W. (2004). Homeless people’s trust and interactions with police and paramedics. Journal of Urban Health, 81(4), 596–605. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/index/L13127JL77R57411.pdf Cite
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Adams, N. (2014). Deciding Force Project. Retrieved December 15, 2014, from http://www.decidingforce.org/ Cite
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Balko, R. (2012, December 11). Why Are There No Good Data On Police Use Of Force? Retrieved October 26, 2013, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/radley-balko/why-is-there-no-good-data_b_2278013.html Cite
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Berzofsky, M., Ewing, G., DeMichele, M., Langton, L., Hyland, S. S., & Davis, E. (2017). Police-Public Contact Survey: Assessment and Recommendations for Producing Trend Estimates after 2011 Questionnaire Redesign. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). Retrieved from https://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5905 Cite
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Bialik, C. (2016, July 21). Why Are So Many Black Americans Killed By Police? Retrieved September 22, 2016, from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/why-are-so-many-black-americans-killed-by-police/ Cite
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Bornstein, A. (2005). Antiterrorist Policing in New York City after 9/11: Comparing Perspectives on a Complex Process. Human Organization, 64(1), 52–61. https://doi.org/10.17730/humo.64.1.mf00296tl98bk2l5 Cite
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Buehler, J. W. (2016). Racial/Ethnic Disparities in the Use of Lethal Force by US Police, 2010–2014. American Journal of Public Health, 107(2), 295–297. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2016.303575 Cite
Bui, Q., & Cox, A. (2016, July 11). Surprising New Evidence Shows Bias in Police Use of Force but Not in Shootings. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/12/upshot/surprising-new-evidence-shows-bias-in-police-use-of-force-but-not-in-shootings.html Cite
Bui, Q., & Cox, A. (2016, July 11). Surprising New Evidence Shows Bias in Police Use of Force but Not in Shootings. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/12/upshot/surprising-new-evidence-shows-bias-in-police-use-of-force-but-not-in-shootings.html Cite
Bump, P. (2016, July 8). Why the Dallas police had explosives, and how those explosives were fatal. Retrieved July 10, 2016, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/07/08/why-the-dallas-police-had-explosives-and-how-those-explosives-were-fatal/ Cite
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Burke, R. J., & Mikkelsen, A. (2005). Burnout, job stress and attitudes towards the use of force by Norwegian police officers. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 28(2), 269–278. https://doi.org/10.1108/13639510510597906 Cite
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Chen, J. N. (2017). #Blacklivesmatter and the State of Asian/America. Journal of Asian American Studies, 20(2), 265–271. https://doi.org/10.1353/jaas.2017.0019 Cite
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