People who smoke are much more likely to be socially and materially disadvantaged.
It’s important to remember that our sample of adults is not representative of all sexual and gender minorities in California. First this wasn’t a random sample of LGBTQ adults in the state, but more importantly, to be eligible to participate in the study, participants had to be current or former smokers.
There is a clear social gradient in smoking where people who smoke are much more likely to be socially and materially disadvantaged. So it shouldn’t be surprising that our participants’ lives were shaped by multiple interlocking systems of oppression, including sexism, heterosexism, classism, and racism. It’s these systems of oppression that are foregrounded in a critical public health.